Academic Implications of Defiant Behavior Disorder on Performance of Learners with Hearing Impairment in Selected Special Schools, Kilifi County, Kenya
Ernest, Ommang’ale Linus
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This survey aimed to explore the implication of defiant behavior disorder on academic performance of learners with hearing impairment in Kilifi County, Kenya. The study was prompted by the increasing number of learners with hearing impairment in Kilifi county failing to perform academically. The study objectives were to find out common traits of learners with hearing impairment with defiant behavior disorders in Kilifi County, Kenya. Establish how defiant behavior disorder leads to poor academic performance among learners with hearing impairment in Kilifi County, Kenya. To determine the prevalence of defiant behavior disorders in learners with hearing impairment in special schools in Kilifi County, Kenya and lastly to investigate education intervention strategies that were employed to curb defiant behavior disorder while improving academic performance in learners with hearing impairment in Kilifi County, Kenya. Piloting was done at School A for the Hearing Impaired after which further improvements of the research instruments was done. The survey was guided by the Social Learning theory advanced by Albert Bandura (1977). The descriptive survey design was adopted since it depicted the condition of occasions in view of the response from the participants. The target population was four hundred and sixty one respondents while the sample size was one hundred and fifty four respondents. The research instruments utilized were interview, questionnaires and observation schedules. Mixed data analysis methods were employed whereby qualitative data was analyzed by use of themes guided by the survey objectives while quantitative data was analyzed by use of simple descriptive statistics like measures of central tendency, frequency distribution tables, mean, mode, median and measures of dispersion i.e. variance and standard deviation. The study established that the defiant behaviours observed in learners with hearing impairment were mostly psychological including low self-esteem, low confidence and/or depression. Verbal defiant behaviours noted in learners included threatening others, labelling, cheating, gossiping and excluding others from games. These findings also suggest that exposure to family-related conflicts; drug and alcohol abusing parents or caregivers, poverty and trauma were the major factors causing defiant behaviours among learners with HI. The survey concluded that high scores of defiant behavior among learners with HI led to poor performance in class. School administrations need to boost greater parental involvement in the school by including them in the formulation of policies and a behavior management plan to deal with the issue of defiant behaviors especially those that are physical in nature. The Ministry of Education's quality assurance and standard division should make an effort to plan appropriate in-service programs for all teachers and head teachers in the special schools so that they can become informed and sensitive to communication strategies, sign language, and even instructional materials. This will help students do better in school. The study may be of benefit to the Ministry Of Education, Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development, and Teachers Service Commission who are major players in the field of education. Parents‟ guardians and sponsors of learners with hearing impairment with defiant behavior disorder will also be able to understand their learners better.