Availability and use of Information Communication Technology in the Teaching of English in Secondary Schools in Nakuru County, Kenya
Wanjiku, Rose Lucy
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The performance of English as a subject among learners in public secondary schools in Nakuru County had declined despite the introduction of ICT in the ministry. The goal of this research was to examine the availability and use of ICT in the teaching and learning of English in public secondary schools in Nakuru County. The study also sought to find out the challenges that teachers faced in the use of ICT in teaching and learning English. The constructivism theory associated with John Dewey was used as the study's theoretical structure. The study followed the mixed method research and the adopted descriptive survey research design. It targeted 336 secondary schools, 336 principals, 672 teachers of English and 6,800 form three (3) students in Nakuru County. A 10% percent sample was taken from this group, yielding 34 principals, 68 English teachers, and 680 students in form three (3). The information was collected from the respondents using questionnaires, interview guides, and observation schedules. In Nakuru County, a pilot study was performed in two public secondary schools with similar characteristics to the sampled schools. The feedback from the pilot was assessed for relevance, comprehensiveness, and completeness with the purpose of enhancing the validity of the instruments. The test-retest method was used to check for reliability. Having satisfied the validity and reliability requirement, the instruments were deployed for the main data collection exercise. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 while qualitative data was analysed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study found that there is inadequate number of ICT resources available for integration in English teaching and learning among the secondary schools in Nakuru County. Main ICT facilities used in schools included computers, televisions, radios and cell phones with the major use being setting exams and teaching listening skills. The major uses of ICT in English classes were found to be on pronunciation, sourcing of information, listening and for teaching vocabularies. The study further found that the use of ICT in English teaching had been hindered due to lack of ICT trainings, lack of enough sockets in the classroom, lack of general limited ICT resources in school and lack of software when it was required. Based on the findings, the study concluded that secondary schools in Nakuru County did not have adequate ICT resources for use in teaching and learning English. The study also concluded that existing resources were mainly used to facilitate tradition teacher-centred teaching strategies rather promoting student-centred approaches. If the ICT in Education Policy was to be successfully enforced in schools, one of the most important recommendations is for all education stakeholders to work together to assist schools in acquiring the required ICT infrastructure. Teachers should be properly educated in the use of ICT and its incorporation into teaching and learning processes. This will assist teachers in acquiring the required expertise and skills for implementing ICT into curriculum implementation. Finally, the report proposed that further research be performed. Similar research can be carried out in other Counties so that the results can be extended to a broader region. Other research in the same field could delve at the variables that were not addressed in this report, which could be classified into three categories: school-related, teacher-related, and student-related factors.