Phytochemical Quantification, Anthelmintic, Antioxidant and Acute Toxicity Properties of Dichloromethane Extracts of Maytenus Senegalensis and Dalbergia Melanoxylon
Mwangi, Boniface Maina
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Maytenus senegalensis was traditionally used as a therapeutic option against chest pains and anthelmintic while Dalbelgia melanoxylon was used to treat anthelmintic. However, their anthelmintic potentials, antioxidant potentials and safety have not been scientifically validated. The aim of this study therefore, was to determine in vitro anthelminthic properties, quantitative phytochemical properties and in vivo sub-acute toxicity of Dicholoromethane plants extracts in mice. Seventy five worms were grouped into 5 groups in each of 3 petri plates. Group I was treated with distilled water (50ml). Group II were treated with albendazole at dose of 25mg/ml. Groups III, IV, V were treated with plants extracts of 12.5, 25 and 50mg/ml, respectively. Results were interpreted as time taken for paralysis and death of earthworms. The extracts manifested paralytic effects on worms after exposure periods ranging between 03.07min and 11.25min for M. senegalensis and 02.13min and 07.24min for D. melanoxylon. The extracts showed mortality effects on worms after periods ranging between 04.45min and 13.29min for M. senegalensis and 03.36min and 08.76min for D. melanoxylon. The antioxidant potential of the extracts were assessed against I,I-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, iron chelating and ferric-reducing power. Phytochemical analysis was conducted using gas chromatography linked to mass spectrophotometry. Results revealed the extracts exhibited scavenging activities against all radicals. The extracts exhibited iron chelating and ferric reducing abilities. The extracts indicated a higher half inhibitory concentration value than the standard used. For instance, the extracts of M. senegalensis and D. melanoxylon exhibited 50% of the formation of 2, 2-diphenyl-i- picrylhydrazine of at concentration of 1.31±0.40 and1.31±0.04μg/ml and standard was 0.50±0.04μg/ml. Similarly, the extract scavenged 50% of hydroxyl radical of M. senegalensis at 1.24±0.02 and D. melanoxylon at 1.24±0.03 and the standard (citric acid) at 0.04±0.05μg/ml. Further, stem barks of D. melanoxylon exhibited significantly higher phenolic content than the extract of M. senegalensis at all the tested concentrations. For sub-acute toxicity test, the mice were orally administered with different doses of plants extracts. They were weighed on the first day and after 7 days during treatment with the extracts. After 28 days, the mice were sacrificed and blood samples taken for full hemogram, renal and liver function tests. The extracts had no lethal effects on body organ weights as well as on the haematological and biochemical parameters in normal mice. The study concluded that the plant extracts have phytochemicals safely associated with anthelmintic and antioxidant activities. Further, the plants extracts have in vitro anthelmintic activities in earthworms at dose level of 50 mg/ml. The plants extracts studied have no in vivo toxicity in normal mice at dose level of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The study recommends the undertaking of in vivo antioxidant studies on plants extracts. Also there is need to carry out bioassay guided fractionation and structure elucidation of phytochemicals in the plants extracts. Further there is need for efficient conservation strategies for these medicinal plants in Kenya.