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dc.contributor.advisorWashingtone Arodien_US
dc.contributor.advisorGeorge Gacharaen_US
dc.contributor.authorNyika, Paul Ngaluma
dc.date.accessioned2022-09-09T08:44:52Z
dc.date.available2022-09-09T08:44:52Z
dc.date.issued2022
dc.identifier.urihttp://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/24180
dc.descriptionA Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of a Master of Science Degree in Infectious Diseases of Kenyatta University, March 2022en_US
dc.description.abstractBilharziasis is a common parasitic disease caused by flatworms called schistosomes. Generally, this infection is common and prevalent disease in Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East, Asia and the Caribbean. With slowed down treatment, the infection in young children (under 5 years) can potentially cause long term harm health effects. This disease causes unsatisfactory development and advancement in this early critical phase of life. This study was meant to attest to the burden of schistosomiasis in Taita Taveta County, by unmasking the prevalence and intensity of the disease among 5 years and below of age. The study recruited children under 5 years from six villages using stratified random technique. The selected children were referred to the nearest health facility for specimen collection. Stool and urine specimens were examined microscopically for helminths. Blood specimens were analyzed for malaria parasites and hemoglobin concentration. Data on anthropometric indices were also collected. Analysis were done using WHO Anthros and IBM SPSS. 132 participants were admitted in the study, predominant sex (53.8%) being males. The age of the participants ranged from 7 to 59 complete months with a median age of 48 (39 – 59) months. The number of participants who tested positive for bilharziasis was 37 (28%; 95% CI 21.1% - 36.2%). Cases of haematobium and mansoni were discovered in 18.9 percent (95% CI 13.2% - 26.5%) and 15.9 percent (95% CI 10.7% - 23.1%) of the sampled participants sequentially. Participants who were positive for other intestinal nematodes 6.8 percent; 95% CI 3.6% - 12.5%. The other STH infections were: ascariasis (6.8%), hookworm infection (4.5%) and trichuriasis (1.5%). The proportion of study participants whohad heavy intensity infections of urinary schistosomiasis were 16.0%. Heavy intensity infections were not detected in STH and S. mansoni. Bilharziasis was associated with nutritional aspects which comprises of stunting (odds ratio (OR) 3.665 (95% CI 1.443 - 9.309), p=0.006) and underweight (OR 12.698 (95% CI 3.107 - 51.900, p<0.001). Anemia was evidenced among the participants with schistosome infection when compared with the schistosome-negative participants (57.1 percent versus 42.9 percent respectively, OR 7.897 (95% CI 3.383 – 18.438), p<0.001). This survey confirmed a significant burden of schistosomiasis among population aged 5 years and below in the study area. Additionally, this study indisputable demonstrated that a lot of concerted efforts need to be prioritized for interventions including treatment and deworming to the pre-school age children (PSAC) in the study area. For example, in line with WHO exhortation, since the ova patent prevalence of schistosomiasis in this age group is within the range of more than 10% but not exceeding 50%, then biennial treatment with praziquantel should be conducted. With the great ambitious goal of World health organization of outstretching 75% coverage of prophylactic chemotherapy with a target of major helminthiases among PSAC, the findings from this study emphasizes the need for quick implementation of specific interventions to avoid accelerated morbidity while improving the general health of the population. Our data support the call for institutionalized mass treatment in lieu of school-based approaches only. This will ensure that deserving PSAC are reached by pertinent interventions via alternative delivery platforms such as through the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses and through Early Childhood Development and Education Centers. This work equally revealed the connection between flatworm’s infections, anemia and nutritional stature in the preferred population.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.subjectEffectsen_US
dc.subjectSchistosomiasisen_US
dc.subjectHaemoglobin Concentrationen_US
dc.subjectNutritional Statusen_US
dc.subjectChildren under 5 Yearsen_US
dc.subjectTaita/Taveta Countyen_US
dc.subjectKenya.en_US
dc.titleEffects of Schistosomiasis on Haemoglobin Concentration and Nutritional Status in Children under 5 Years, Taita/Taveta County, Kenya.en_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


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