Teachers’ Instructional Strategies Affecting Performance in English Among Learners With Mild Intellectual Disability in Primary Schools in Kiambu County,
Gachie, Mary Wanjiku Gachie
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The guiding principal purpose for the study was to establish the teachers' instructional strategies affecting performance in English among learners with Mild Intellectual Disability (MID) in primary schools in Kiambu County. Specifically, the study: assessed the English performance of learners with MID, established the effects of teacher qualification in special needs, teacher attitude and teachers‟ instructional methods on the English performance of learners with MID in primary schools in Kiambu County. The study employed social constructivist theory to explore the teachers‟ instructional strategies that had effect on the English performance of learners with MID in acquiring self-regulation. In this study 31 class six English teachers, 2111 class six learners and 31 school administrators within 3 zones were targeted in the descriptive survey study. A 20% sample was used to sample the learners, while purposeful sampling was used for the teachers and school administrators. The study used a sample of 31 school administrators, 31 teachers and 422 learners, all from the three identified zones. For data collection, the proposed study employed the following instruments: observational schedules, interview schedules and questionnaires. In this study, two questionnaires were used; for teachers, and for school administrators. Piloting was done in Gicharani primary school and helped in determining the validity of the research instruments while test and re-test method was used to test the instruments‟ reliability. Quantitative data questions were analyzed by descriptive statistics using frequencies, percentages and measures of central tendencies. The study found that the majority of learners with MID performed below average. Similarly, the majority of their teachers believed that inclusive approaches could help the learners with MID. Most teachers had certificate and diploma while some had degrees in Special Needs Education (SNE). It was found that the teachers with these qualifications were likely to have their learners with MID performing averagely as compared to those without the training. The p value 0.034<0.05 was significant which showed that the teachers‟ qualification in SNE training had statistically significant influence on the learners with MID English performance. Findings further revealed that the teachers‟ attitude was positive with some having a negative attitude. The chi-square analysis revealed that the p-value was statistically significant at 0.018 implying that the teachers‟ attitude towards the learners affected the learners with MID‟s English performance. Furthermore, findings revealed that the teachers and school administrators generally believed that group discussions were critical in helping learners with MID. However, the observation revealed that group discussions were rarely used in class. The chi square results revealed that the MID learners‟ English performance was influenced by the teachers‟ instructional methods which was supported by the statistically significant p value 0.010<0.05. The study recommended the ministry of education to develop policies to assess learners‟ intellectual ability to ensure that learners with MID were identified early in order to provide early intervention to ensure their achievement was at par with their peers.