Principals’ Monitoring of Instructional Practices and its Influence on Teaching and Learning Outcomes in Public Secondary Schools in Kajiado County, Kenya
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The core business of a school is instruction. Thus, the principals’ monitoring of instructional practices is necessary to enhance teaching and learning processes and outcome in schools. Accordingly, the Teachers Service Commission developed the performance appraisal as a monitoring tool for improving teaching and learning processes and outcomes in public schools. Despite these measures, teaching and learning outcomes has remained consistently low, especially in Kajiado County. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the principals’ monitoring of instructional practices and its’ influence on teaching and learning outcomes in public schools in Kajiado County. The objectives of the study are to: assess the influence of principals’ monitoring of teacher preparation of professional documents on teaching and learning outcomes; determine the influence of the principals monitoring of teachers instructional delivery on teaching and learning outcomes; assess the influence of principals’ monitoring of instructional assessments on teaching and learning outcomes and evaluate the principals’ use of monitoring feedback and its influence on teaching and learning outcomes. The study was guided by the result-based management theory. The study employed a descriptive survey design. The study population of study comprised 753 respondents in all the 9 public secondary schools in Kajiado. These respondents included 150 teachers, 594 students and 9 principals. Out of these, 358 respondents were sampled. They were comprised of 9 principals, 110 teachers and 239 students. Proportionate sampling was used to draw a sample of teachers’ and students per school. Further, simple random sampling was used to sample teachers while convenience sampling was applied to draw the sample of students to participate in the study per school. Data was collected by use of questionnaires and interview schedule. A pilot study was conducted in two schools for the purpose of addressing validity and reliability of the instruments before the actual study was conducted. Content validity was determined by seeking the judgment of professional experts in the area of educational research, evaluation and assessment. Reliability level was ascertained by using Cronbach’s alpha technique to check internal consistency of the instruments. The analysis of quantitative data was done using frequencies, percentages and means and presented in tables, figures and pie-charts. Qualitative data was arranged into themes and presented in verbatim and narration. Inferential statistics such as correlation and linear regression were also used. The study established that the four variable: principals’ monitoring of teachers’ preparation of professional documents, principals' monitoring of teachers’ instructional delivery, principals' checking of assessment practices and principals’ feedback had a moderate significant influence on teaching and learning outcomes. The linear regression models showed that the adjusted R2-0.442 of the KCSE performance is influenced by independent variables. The study concluded that principals' monitoring of instructional practices (mean=3.5) significantly influenced performance. This study recommends that principals should intensify monitoring as an impetus to academic achievement. It recommended that the Ministry of Education should organise training for principals to improve their skills of monitoring instruction. This study’s findings may be used as a framework in organising workshops for principals on best practices.