Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices of Boxers, Wrestlers, and Bodybuilders towards Use of Performance-Enhancing Substances in Kenya
Mandu, Wanjiku Agnes
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Boxing, wrestling, and bodybuilding are sports that require athletes to be highly conditioned from both endurance and strength perspective. Hence, the temptation to use performance enhancing substance has become rampant among athletes from these sports. Some of the athletes have tested positive for inadvertent doping after use of performance enhancing substances. This can be blamed on lack of knowledge, acquired beliefs and practices, as well as attitudes developed by athletes. The purpose of this study was to establish knowledge levels, attitudes, beliefs, and practices on the use of performance enhancing substances, among athletes from boxing, wrestling, and bodybuilding federations in Kenya. The main objective was to evaluate knowledge levels, beliefs, attitudes, and use of performance enhancing substances and methods among wrestlers, boxers, and bodybuilders in Kenya. The hypotheses sought to find out if there were any significant difference in knowledge levels, beliefs, attitudes, and use of performance enhancing substances and methods among these sports disciplines. Pressure from stakeholders and the nature of these sports discipline make them vulnerable to use performance enhancing substances. The findings of this study can be used by relevant institutions to plan programs on awareness creation among other sports disciplines. The study utilized cross-sectional analytical research design. The study population comprised of 1900 athletes from the three sports disciplines with a sample size of 384 athletes. Both closed and open-ended questionnaires were used as the data collection instrument. Data obtained from the respondents was coded and organized for analysis by use of SPSS version 25. Hypotheses were tested using one-way ANOVA and t-test at confidence level of 0.05. Post hoc analysis was carried out using Duncan Multiple Range Test where differences were found to be significant. Pearson Correlation was used to determine the associations between continuous variables of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and use/ practice. Results on one way ANOVA indicated knowledge levels at F(2, 381) = 19.631, p<0.001, attitudes at F(2, 381) = 25.605, p<0.001, beliefs at F(2, 381) = 46.646, p<0.001, and practice at F(2,381) = 24.050, p<0.000. three sports disciplines. Pearson correlations were found to be significant at p<0.001, with a positive association between knowledge levels and experience (r=0.222), use of FS, TH and PES and experience (r=0.187), knowledge levels and attitude (r=0.380), beliefs and use of FS, TH and PES (r=0.515). However, a negative association was found with p<0.001, between knowledge levels and beliefs (r= -0.443), beliefs and use of TH, FS, and PES (r= -0.133), beliefs and attitudes (r= -0.677), attitude and use (r= -0.446). Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of athletes from the three sports disciplines were significantly different. Officials from the three sports federations should develop structures necessary for imparting knowledge to athletes on use of PES.