Human Resource Management Best Practices and Turnover Intentions of Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Murang’a County, Kenya
Kamau, Onesmus Mwangi
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Employees play a key role in the achievement of organisation objectives, however, turnover intentions (intention to leave) negatively affect their morale, loyalty and retention and thus every organisation endeavours to reduce these negative effects. Although Human Resource Management best practices are suggested to affect employees‟ turnover intentions, the extent of this effect has been inconsistent in previous studies. Moreover, the moderating role of community embeddedness and the mediating role of employee engagement among teachers in Kenya have been given little attention. Therefore this study sought to investigate the effect of Human Resource Management best practices on teachers‟ turnover intentions in public secondary schools in Murang‟a county Kenya. The specific objectives for the study were: to establish the effect of compensation, career development, performance appraisal and training on turnover intentions, to establish the moderating effect of community embeddedness and the mediating effect of employee engagement in the Human Resource Management best practices and turnover intentions relationship among teachers in public secondary schools employed by Teachers Service Commission. The Universalistic, Contingency, Social exchange, Organisation equilibrium, Expectancy confirmatory and Job embeddedness theories guided the study. Being a cross sectional study it adopted descriptive and survey research designs. The study targeted 304 public secondary schools and 3752 teachers employed by Teachers Service Commission in Murang‟a county Kenya. To arrive at a sample size of 40 schools and 400 teachers a two multi stage random sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was the data collection tool. In addition, qualitative data from the schools‟ principals was collected using an interview guide. Use of experts and reviewing literature that relates with the study construct ensured validity of the instruments. Application of Cronbach‟s alpha verified the instrument reliability whereby items with alpha value of 0.7 and above were considered appropriate. Data was descriptively and inferentially (binary logistic regression) analysed using SPSS statistical package. Estimation and test of hypothesis was done at 95% confidence interval. Qualitative analysis of the unstructured questions was through content analysis. The response rate for this study was 75.4%. The study established that compensation and training significantly influenced turnover intentions while performance appraisal and career development insignificantly influenced public secondary schools teachers‟ turnover intentions in Murang‟a County, Kenya. This study also established that community embeddedness moderated while employee engagement partially mediated the Human Resource Management best practices and turnover intentions relationship. This study recommends the employer should adopt a participatory approach in the implementation of human resource management best practices to increase engagement and intention to stay. The study recommends Teachers Service Commission to review compensation for teachers who are not administrators and the improvement of medical insurance cover. The study recommends policy guidelines for induction training to be developed to ensure uniformity in induction training in all schools and equipping of the school principals with relevant Human Resource Management skills. Teachers‟ employer should develop policies that support teachers‟ community engagement and should create an environment that supports employee engagement. Future research should consider incorporating additional best practices and demographic factors, focus on other sectors and adopt longitudinal study.