Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteria Isolated from Wards, Operating Room and Post-Operative Wound Infections among Patients Attending Mama Lucy Hospital, Kenya.
Auna, Amulioto Johnstone
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Surgical site infections are a worldwide problem in the field of surgery contributing to increased mortality and morbidity. However, despite advances in the control of surgical site infections, the risk of acquiring these infections has not fully been eliminated due to the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria pathogens. In Kenya, there were scanty published reports on the antibiogram of surgical site infection pathogens lurking in the hospitals. The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from the wards, operating room, and surgical site infections among patients attending Mama Lucy Hospital. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of patients with post-operative wound infections in the hospital wards. Purposive sampling was employed and a total of 126 samples collected. Of these, 58 came from surgical site infected patients and 68 were obtained from predefined areas of the wards and operating room of the facility. The samples were processed through Gram stain, culture, and an array of biochemical tests. Subsequently, antibiotic susceptibility tests by Kirby bauer disc diffusion technique were performed on the isolated bacteria. Data collected was analyzed using a statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 20 and chi-square (p<0.05). A total of 137 bacteria were isolated from the culture positive swabs, 78 of these came from the wound pus swabs while 59 were recovered from the hospital surface swabs. Among the SSI bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (28.2%) was the preponderant bacteria followed by E.coli (15.4%). In the wards and operating room, the main bacterial contaminant was Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the sensitivity report, all the SSI bacteria isolates were sensitive to Chloramphenicol (69.2%). Wherease the environmental bacteria isolates had sensitivity to Ciprofloxacin (86.4%), Doxycycline (88.1%), Chloramphenicol (93.2%) and Vancomycin (100%). Majority of the environmental isolates were highly resistant to Ampicillin/cloxacillin. In conclusion, the most prevalent SSI bacteria was Staphylococcus aureus, while Chloramphenicol was seen as the best drug for treating SSI at the hospital. The facility therefore needs to identify the most frequent bacteria associated with SSI. In addition, they need to monitor the bacteria that frequently contaminate the wards and operating room. The current antibiogram profile will help policy makers in the healthcare sector and the current setting to improve the current local guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis for treatment of surgical site infection. The profiling will also assist in monitoring bacteria resistance trends within the institution and the country. Information generated from the hospital environment will help the infection control team at the current set-up to improve on the prevention of healthcare associated infections by carrying out active monitoring of hospital contaminants.