Motivation Orientation of Participants in Extreme Sports in Kenya: A Case of the Mount Kenya Extreme Adventure Challenge
Jonah, Jumbe Sagaya
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Extreme sports have gained popularity and growth in participation as alternative sports from the dominant sports since 1970’s. Social related factors in diverse cultural orientations influence decisions to participate in extreme sports. Participants seek ‘extreme activities’ that provide higher stimulation and excitement. In Kenya, Mt Kenya Extreme Sports Challenge, which is a team designed competition, has been held since 2011. Nonetheless, the motives for participation in extremes sports are not known in Kenya. The present study sought to explore motivation orientation of participants in Mt. Kenya Extreme Sports Challenge based on their demographic characteristics. In 2015, Mt Kenya school of adventure and leadership hosted 99 participants. Descriptive research design was used to assess motivation orientation of the Mt Kenya extreme sports challenge (MKESC) 2015 participants who were categorized into self sponsored individuals and corporate sponsored teams. A census survey was used in the study. Data was collected using adopted Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) by Pelletier et al., (1995). The SMS questionnaire assessed three main motivation categories; intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivation of the MKESC participants based on their demographic characteristics of age, gender, level of education and sponsorship status. Eighty four participants accepted to be respondents of the present study where 73%(61) of the respondents were male and 27%(23) were female. Hypotheses were tested using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test at p ≤0.05 level of significance. Scheffe test was used to trace the source of significance difference after significant F-ratios. An independent t-test established a significant difference on intrinsic motivations t (82) = -2.777 p = .007 between male and female participants. However, independent t-test did not establish significant difference at p < .05 on extrinsic and amotivation between male and female respondents. While evaluating motivation orientations of the respondents based on their age, ANOVA identified significant difference at p < .05 where Scheffe post hoc test established that the significant differences were between the respondents in age category 18-24 years and those in 25-34 years. A significant difference existed in extrinsic motivation as well as amotivation based on education level of the MKESC participants F(3,80)=3.32, p = .024 and F(3,80)=3.17, p = .029 respectively. Motivation was observed to differ significantly in all the three motivation categories (intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivation) based on the sponsorship status (self-sponsored, institution sponsored) of the respondents at p < .05. The study concluded that male and female participants in extreme sports have different intrinsic motivation orientations. Age influenced motivation orientation particularly extrinsic motivation of extreme sports of participants between 18 and 34 years. Education and sponsorship status of extreme sports significantly influenced extrinsic motivation of extreme sports participants. Findings of the study are useful in understanding demographic details, motivation orientation and motives of participants in extreme sports challenge in Kenya. This may facilitate the designing of programs that address specific needs of participants, form the basis for monitoring and evaluation of participants’ satisfaction levels and provide reference material for extreme sports in Kenya. Future studies should evaluate motivation orientations of the participants before and after extreme sports participation.