Inclusive Factors Influencing the Employment of Persons with Disability among 3-5 Star Hotels in Nairobi City County, Kenya
Marigu, Mwaniki Caroline Daina
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The Kenyan government enacted the Persons with Disabilities Act 2003 on December 2003. It came into effect on June 16, 2004. The Act was required to ensure the rights and rehabilitation of PWDs. However, they continue to be marginalized, unemployed, and earn less than their able-bodied counterparts. The purpose of this research was to examine whether legislation, demand and supply factors had a relationship to the employment of persons with disability in 3-5-star hotels in Nairobi City County, Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were: to examine legislation on the employment of PWDs in 3-5-star hotels in Nairobi City County, Kenya; to investigate the demand factors for the employment of PWDs in 3-5-star hotels in Nairobi City County, Kenya; to examine the supply factors for qualified PWDs on the employment of PWDs in 3-5-star hotels in Nairobi City County, Kenya; to investigate the type of disability on employment of PWDs in 3-5-star hotels in Nairobi City County, Kenya and; to examine the relationship between legislation, demand factors, supply factors and type of disability and the employment of PWDs in 3-5-star hotels in Nairobi City County, Kenya. A descriptive survey design was employed targeting respondents from 32 organizations comprising of 31 HR Personnel in 31 hotels, 1 officer from the National Council for Persons with Disability and PWDs employed in hotels. Purposive sampling technique was used. Data was collected using questionnaires for the HR personnel and PWDS; interview for the Disability Service Officer at the NCPWDs and an observation checklist. Descriptive statistics were used to present the findings in frequencies and percentages. Pearson’s Correlation was used to determine the strength of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Hypotheses were analyzed through linear and multiple linear regressions to predict the relationship between the variables. Results indicated that 62% (13) of hotels have not employed PWDs over the last 14 years. Most PWDs employed had physical disability (86%) and HR personnel were more likely to employ persons with physical disability. Most employers were aware of the Act and stated compliance to it is mandatory. Qualities considered in employment of PWDs are education (95%), personal characteristics (81%) and work experience (67%). PWDs indicated that HR personnel also looked at the type of disability (65%) during employment. Legislation has a relationship to the employment of PWDs as indicated by the significance value of 0.0005. The null hypothesis demand factors have no relationship to the employment of PWDs was accepted as the significance value was 0.217. Supply factors had a relationship to the employment of PWDs as the significance value was 0.005. Similarly, type of disability had a relationship to the employment of PWDs as the significance value was 0.0005. Results indicated the 5% quota outlined had not been achieved in the hotels and the financial incentives were not utilized. The study recommended that standards and measures standards and measures to monitor and facilitate the compliance of quota obligations within hotels be developed by government and stakeholders. The study also recommended that hotels maximise and use internships as a way to identify, train, mentor and develop hardworking students with disability as potential full time employees. The study also recommended that a similar study be conducted for hotels in rural setting, incorporating more or all the star rated hotels.