Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns among Kenyan and Japanese Children: A Comprehensive Cross-Country Comparison
Waiganjo, Luka B.
Bogonko, Lamec F.
Isika, Juliet K.
Kigaru, Mbithe D.
Mwangi, Francis M.
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first_pagesettings Open AccessArticle Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns among Kenyan and Japanese Children: A Comprehensive Cross-Country Comparison by Tetsuhiro Kidokoro 1,2,*OrcID,Noriyuki Fuku 3,Toshio Yanagiya 3OrcID,Tomonari Takeshita 3,Mizuki Takaragawa 3,Michael Annear 4,Tian Xiaojie 5,Luka B. Waiganjo 6,Lamec F. Bogonko 6,Juliet K. Isika 7,Mbithe D. Kigaru 8 andFrancis M. Mwangi 6OrcID 1 Physical Fitness Research Institute, Meiji Yasuda Life Foundation of Health and Welfare, Tokyo 192-0001, Japan 2 Department of Health & Physical, Education College of Arts & Science, International Christian University, Tokyo 181-8585, Japan 3 Graduate School of Health and Sports Science, Juntendo University, Chiba 270-1695, Japan 4 Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokyo 202-0021, Japan 5 Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8574, Japan 6 Department of Physical Education, Exercise & Sports Science, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, P.O. Box 43844-0010, Kenya 7 Department of Fashion Design and Marketing, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, P.O. Box 43844-0010, Kenya 8 Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, P.O. Box 43844-0010, Kenya * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124254 Received: 1 May 2020 / Revised: 10 June 2020 / Accepted: 10 June 2020 / Published: 15 June 2020 (This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children and Youth) Download PDF Browse Figures Citation Export Abstract Health benefits of physical activity are well known, yet available physical activity data is limited from children living in African and Asian countries. The purpose of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate and compare physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns, particularly hourly variations, among children in Kenya and Japan. Participants included 298 primary school students (122 Kenyan, 176 Japanese) aged 9–12 years. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured with accelerometers. Domain-specific physical activity, screen time, and proportion of children using active transport to school were measured by questionnaire. A two-way ANOVA (countries × time) was used to examine the differences in the activity patterns between Kenyan and Japanese children. The results from the present study demonstrated that Kenyan children spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared to Japanese children (p < 0.05) with the greatest differences found for weekday evenings (for boys and girls) and weekend afternoons (for girls). This suggests that these were ‘critical periods’ to differentiate the physical activity levels between Kenyan and Japanese children. However, a higher proportion of the children from Japan used active transport to school and spent less time in television viewing and computer gaming. The results suggest that both countries have successes and challenges that can aid in developing effective and country-specific intervention strategies for promoting physical activity.