Phytochemical Profile, Antipyretic, Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Dichloromethane Leaf Extracts of Eucalyptus Globulus (Labill) and Senna Didymobotrya (Fresenius)
Mworia, Joseph Kiambi
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Pain,fever and inflammation are managed using synthetic drugs, which are associated with many undesirable effects. Herbal medicines form an alternative therapy to synthetic drugs since they possess fewer side effects. Eucalyptus globulus and Senna didymobotrya are traditionally used by the Embu and Mbeere communities of Kenya in the management and/or treatment of many ailments including pain, fever and inflammation. Empirical data on their effects against pain, fever and inflammation is, however, lacking. This study, therefore, sought to determine the quantitative phytochemical profiles, as well as in vivo antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of E. globulus and S. didymobotrya. The plant samples were obtained from Mbeere North Sub-County, Kenya. Three grams of leaf extracts of E. globulus and S. didymobotrya samples were obtained and analyzed to determine quantitative phytochemical composition using GC-MS. Swiss albino mice were used in the bioscreening of analgesic and anti-inflammation activities, while albino rats were used in the antipyretic activity. In each test group, nine groups of five experimental animals were used: Positive, normal, negative control and six experimental groups. Turpentine, Formalin and Carrageenan were used for induction of fever, pain and inflammation respectively. Aspirin was used as a reference antipyretic drug while diclofenac was used as reference analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug. Six extract doses of each studied plant were tested for antipyretic, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities (25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250mg/kgbw). The GC-MS results revealed 25 and 10 phytocompounds for E.globulus and S.didymobotrya respectively. Results of antipyretic, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory assays in animal models showed that the two leaf extracts have potential antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities attributed to the constituent phytocompounds namely alphapinene, borneol,limonene among others. E. globulus extract at 250mg kg bw reduced pyrexia by 2.29%, 3.27%, 3.59% and 4.83% while S. dymobotrya reduced fever by 1.31%, 2.24%, 3.08% and 3.97% in the 1st , 2nd , 3rd and 4th hours respectively. For pain bioscreening, E. globulus and S. didymobotrya at 250 mg/kgbw reduced the paw licking time in the late phase by 98.52% and 96.82%, respectively. E. globulus extract at 250mg kg bw reduced inflamed paw in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th hours, by 2.27, 6.52, 9.09 and 10.90% respectively while S. didymobotrya at similar doses, reduced paw by 2.41, 5.43, 8.31 and 9.05% respectively. The administered extract doses (200, 250 mg) are appropriate in the bioassay of antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Therefore, this study, confirms and supports the use of studied plant extracts as alternative and/or complementary remedies against pain, fever and inflammation. It also sets pace for further studies to develop plant-derived drug compounds for treatment of pain, fever and inflammation perhaps by fractionating, isolating, purifying and bioassaying phytocompounds.