Hierarchical Penalized Mixed Model
Ndung’u, A. W.
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Penalized spline has been a popular method for estimating an unknown function in the non-parametric regression due to their use of low-rank spline bases, which make computations tractable. However its performance is poor when estimating functions that are rapidly varying in some regions and are smooth in other regions. This is contributed by the use of a global smoothing parameter that provides a constant amount of smoothing across the function. In order to make this spline spatially adaptive we have introduced hierarchical penalized splines which are obtained by modelling the global smoothing parameter as another spline.