Compliance to Childhood Immunization Schedule among Caregivers of Children 0- 23 Months in Informal Settlements in Nairobi City County, Kenya
Amugune, Ponventras Buliva
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Childhood immunization has played a big role in universal child survival; it has been used to eradicate infectious communicable illnesses and also in the control of epidemics and outbreaks in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. With most health initiative researches in Kenya focusing on rural areas, Informal settlements have always been overlooked when it comes to health improvement efforts by stakeholders. The study objectives were : To establish the influence of level of knowledge on compliance to childhood immunization schedule; To establish the influence of caregiver perception on immunization on compliance to childhood immunization schedule; To determine the influence of caregivers practices on compliance to childhood immunization schedule; To determine the influence of access to healthcare services on compliance to childhood immunization schedule among caregivers of children 0 – 23 months in informal settlements in Nairobi city County, Kenya. The study sites were Viwandani and Mukuru kwa Njenga informal settlements in Nairobi city County, Kenya. A descriptive research design was used for this study. Pre-test of the research instrument was done in Mathare informal settlement using 10% of the study sample size. Purposive sampling was used to select Viwandani and Mukuru areas and cluster sampling was used to select the number of villages in Mukuru kwa Njenga Simple random sampling was used to select the study participants. Quantitative data was collected through questionnaires. The study used SPSS version 22 to establish the descriptive and inferential results regarding the mean, frequencies, standard deviation, regression and correlation. The results were presented in form of tables. The findings revealed that 91.8% of caregivers had taken their children for vaccination at the appropriate age and had complied to the immunization schedule. Only 67.8% of the respondents knew the age at which vaccination was to start. Only 73.2% of respondents could mention diseases prevented by immunization and most caregivers 56% got information on immunization from healthcare workers. The test of independence at significance level of 0.01 results showed that the main determinants of compliance to immunization were level of knowledge (R² = 0.033, df = 1, P<0.003), access to health services (R² = 0.192, df= 1, P<0.0001), caregiver perception (R² = 0.289, df=1, P<0.0001 and caregiver practices (R² = 0.002, df=1, P<0.854). The concept of childhood immunization schedule needs to be incorporated in the education curricula, programs for non-formal education and adult literacy programs, this will help magnify the importance of immunization and as well as show the demerits not complying with immunization schedule as well as harmful consequences of incomplete immunization. Perception of caregivers can be improved by training and educating caregivers on importance of compliance to childhood immunization schedule.