Terms and conditions of service and their relationship to motivation of pre-school teachers in Kwale district, Kenya
Mwanasaid, Makoti Ntembe
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The purpose of this study was to investigate Terms and Conditions of Service for pre-school teachers in Kwale District and find out how they relate to their motivation. More specifically, the study attempted to document the Terms and Conditions of Service of pre-school teachers in the district. The study also sought to determine whether there were differences in the Terms and Conditions of Service of pre-school teachers employed by different sponsors. In addition, the study attempted to investigate the reported levels of motivation of the pre-school teachers under the different sponsors. It also attempted to determine whether salary, job security, career advancement and skills upgrading relate to pre-school teachers' motivation. This was done because pre-school teachers in Kenya work under varied Terms and Conditions of Service offered by different employers. The study used ex post-facto research design. This design was used as it helps to explore the existence of relationships among the selected independent and dependent variables, which cannot be manipulated experimentally but can be established through questionnaires. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were used to select the pre-school teachers. A sample size of 140 pre-school teachers was drawn from Community Schools, County Council Schools, Religious Organization Schools and Private Schools using disproportionate stratified random sampling. The sampled pre-school teachers responded to a self-administered questionnaire on pre-school teachers' Terms and Conditions of Service. The study reports several findings on the Terms and Conditions of Service. First, it revealed that pre-school teachers in Kwale District work under significantly different Terms and Conditions of Service. The results also revealed that over half 87(62%) of the pre-school teachers from Kwale District are demotivated by their Terms and Conditions of Service. Further, the study established that the level of motivation of the pre-school teachers is significantly influenced by school sponsorship. Finally, it was found that no significant relationship exists between salary, job security, career advancement, skills upgrading and motivation of preschool teachers. To improve the working conditions of pre-school teachers in Kenya the pre-school teachers suggested that there was need for the government to explore means of getting a common employer for all pre-school teachers. They also suggested that the government provides a guideline on pre-school teachers' Terms and Conditions of Service to be used by all employers.