Some Aspects of the Ecology, Behaviour and Vectorial Capacity of the Tsetse Fly Glossina Austeni Newstead.
Owaga, Mary Ludvine Akoth
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A study was undertaken in the south coast of Kenya, on the tsetse fly species, Glossina austeni Newstead. The objective was to investigate its population ecology, behaviour and vectorial capacity. The main aspects studied were: habitat requirements and density, responses to sampling devices and methods, such as traps and odours, activity pattern, and infection with trypanosome parasites. Some aspects of the study, such as sampling and activity experiments, evaluation of density, dispersal and habitat requirements, and trypanosome infection rates, were conducted in the field. Others, such as assessment of the effect of temperature and relative humidity on activity and response to odours, and evaluation of the efficiency ofG. austeni in picking up trypanosome parasites from infective blood meals, and in transmitting them to the next mammalian host, were conducted in the laboratory. I' Sampling was carried out using five trap-types, the biconical, the NG2B, the Lancia (original), Lancia (modified) and the 4t traps, to determine whether G. austeni could be trapped in sufficient numbers, and which trap might be most suitable for routine sampling. Similarly, five odour sources were tested as baits: buffalo urine, cow urine, acetone, urine derived phenols and dry ice. Period of activity, and activity pattern as related to feeding, were determined by continuous trapping, using traps and stationary vehicle, and by laboratory observation in a flight chamber, where only olfactory, but no visual stimulant, was presented to the flies. To study the density and dispersal ofG. austeni, the method of markrelease- recapture was used. By this method a sample of tsetse flies.....