Socio Economic and Socio Cultural Challenges to Effective Implementation of Subsidized Day Secondary Education in West Pokot Subcounty, Kenya
Namasake, Martha Nasimiyu
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In 2003, the government presented free primary education in Kenya, which prompted an extreme increment in enrolment in primary schools. This act prompted the government to introduce subsidized secondary education to allow the increased student population to progress to secondary schools in 2008. This student population increase brought about various challenges to implementation of the subsidized programme. This research therefore examined the socio economic and socio cultural factors affecting effective implementation of subsidized day secondary Education in West Pokot Sub-County, Kenya. The study‟s specific objectives are to examine the socio economic factors affecting effective implementation of subsidized secondary education in West Pokot; to examine the socio cultural factors affecting the effective implement of subsidized secondary education in West Pokot; and to determine the adequacy and availability of physical resources to sustain the subsidized secondary school education in West Pokot. The study utilized an exploratory survey design. The study targeted 123 respondents comprising of 10 principals, 108 teachers, and 5 Curriculum Support Officers (CSOs). The sample size was comprised of 6 principals, 54 teachers, and 2 CSOs. The study instruments utilized for information collection from principals, CSOs and teachers were survey questionnaires. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires was checked using Pearson coefficient of correlation, which was 0.84. The Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics in the form of frequencies and percentages and presented using frequency distribution tables. The study concluded that certain socio economic and socio-cultural factors notably influenced implementation of subsidized day secondary education negatively. The study findings indicated that the major socio economic factors that negatively affected implementation of subsidized secondary education included pastoralism, nomadic way of life and illiteracy. The study also revealed that the specific socio economic and socio-cultural factors that hampered the utilization of subsidized day secondary education were an itinerant way of life, joblessness, single or polygamous guardians, early relationships and marriages, female genital mutilation (FGM), sexual orientation inclination of male instead of a female child and child labor through household tasks. The study also found that most schools lacked physical offices, for example, study halls, classrooms, latrines, libraries, research centers, seats and work areas and tables, and the accessible offices were of low quality. The study recommends extension of physical offices, the presentation of rotating assets for destitute students, and enlightenment of the public on the merits of educating and training their youngsters and stopping negative socio-cultural practices, which adversely influence education such as FGM, early relationships and marriages and the nomadic way of life.