Efficacy of Teachers’ Performance Appraisal as a Tool of Management in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi City County, Kenya
K’opiyo, Genevieve Anyango
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Performance Appraisal serves as a management tool whose aim is to encourage communication, improve quality of work and promote accountability. Managers strive to achieve results through management of human, financial and material resources all motivated by setting standards, measuring performance and taking appropriate action for improvement. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of teachers’ performance appraisal as a tool of management in selected public secondary schools in Nairobi City County. The study sought to determine the effect of teachers performance appraisal in management of public secondary schools, establish how performance appraisal supervision affects management of public secondary schools, find out the effect of performance appraisal feedback in management of public secondary schools, identify the challenges facing teachers performance appraisal in management of public secondary schools in Nairobi City County. The study was guided by Locke’s Goal Setting Theory of motivation, which is essentially linked to task performance and work settings. The study targeted 90 Principals, 1,965 teachers, and the Nairobi TSC County Director. The study adopted stratified sampling method to select 27 public secondary schools; stratified random sampling ensured that the national, extra county, county and sub county schools were included in the sample from which 27 principals were purposefully selected, while teachers were selected from each of the sampled schools using simple random sampling giving a total of 196 respondents. The total sample size was 224. The study adopted descriptive survey. Interview and self-administered questionnaires were the main data collection instruments. Quantitative data were analysed using frequencies and percentages and presented using tables and graphs. Qualitative data was analysed thematically and described using words. International Business Machines Statistical Package for Social Sciences software was used for data analysis. The main findings of the study established that schools do not use performance appraisal guidelines as stipulated by Teachers Service Commission, there is minimal supervision of the appraisal process due to shortage of personnel drawn from the Teachers Service Commission and Directorate of Quality Assurance & Standards and principals base their evaluation on students’ performance. The study also established that teachers do not receive performance appraisal feedback from Teachers Service Commission; teachers view the appraisal process as bureaucratic hence its efficacy in management is dismal. The study recommends that in order to improve the performance appraisal process in management of schools, teachers and principals should undergo training on the process; learner results should not be a measure of teacher competency, ensure there is timely and enhanced feedback to teachers. Teachers Service Commission should come up with clear policies on promotion based on performance merit. The study findings would be significant as they would be expected to enable schools to diagnose organizational problems through identifying individual training and development needs, abilities and skills to consider when hiring and to adopt more realistic policies regarding the management of appraisal at the same time form a base for other studies. Further, the findings would be of use to school administrators in coming up with effective ways of managing schools.