Emotional Intelligence and Academic Self-Efficacy Beliefs As Predictors of Academic Achievement among Form Four Students in Kiambu County, Kenya
The aim of this study was to establish if emotional intelligence and academic self- efficacy beliefs significantly predict academic achievement among form four students in public secondary schools in Kiambu County, Kenya. Specifically the study sought to find out the relationship between emotional intelligence, academic self-efficacy beliefs and academic achievement and to develop the prediction equation of academic achievement from emotional intelligence and academic self-efficacy beliefs. The study was anchored on social cognitive theory developed by Bandura in 1986. This study used correlational research design. Data were collected from 11 secondary schools out of 43 secondary schools in Kiambu Sub-County. The study sample comprised of 390 students from the 11 secondary schools. Two types of sampling procedures; proportionate sampling and simple random sampling were used to select the sample. The form four students who participated in the study were selected using simple random sampling. Self-Efficacy Questionnaire and emotional intelligence scale were u sed as the primary tools to collect data. Pilot study was conducted in one school in Kiambu Sub County to establish the validity and reliability of the research tools. Demographic data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and emotional intelligence, academic achievement and self-efficacy data were analyzed by use of inferential statistics (Pearson correlation, regression analysis and one way ANOVA) with the help of SPSS.The findings revealed that emotional intelligence and academic achievement had a significant positive relationship (r (374) = .24, p = .00). The results of one way ANOVA on the mean differences in academic achievement scores based on the three levels of emotional intelligence, showed that the three groups differed significantly. A significant positive correlation was found between academic self-efficacy and academic achievement (r (374) = .23, p < .05). Further analysis using one way ANOVA showed that there were significant mean differences in academic achievement scores of the students with different levels of academic self-efficacy (F(2, 371) = 7.32, p < .05). Post hoc analysis results using Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference indicated that academic achievement scores of students with low and high academic self-efficacy beliefs differed significantly.Regarding the prediction of academic achievement from emotional intelligence domains and academic self-efficacy, the results indicated that the independent variables significantly predicted the dependent variable (F (6, 367) = 9.29, P = 0.00). The study makes the following recommendations; student counsellors, teachers and school administrators should come up with training program for students on the development of emotional intelligence skills. Curriculum designers and education planners should include academic self-efficacy training in the course content so that all secondary school students are equipped with these skills to improve learning outcomes. All the stakeholders in education sector should ensure that secondary schools provide positive learning experiences to enhance development of cognitive constructs that enhance academic achievement.