Baseline Blood Count Levels Increase Odds Of Cytopenia among CML Patients in Kenya: A Case Control Study
Othieno - Abinya, Nicholas
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Imatinib is the gold standard for the treatment of all phases of Philadelphia positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). During treatment, patients may develop cytopenia. We aimed to study the baseline characteristics and factors associated with cytopenia at a Nairobi Hospital. Methods This was a retrospective case-control study of patients aged ≥ 18 years on follow-up at the Glivec International Patient Access Program (GIPAP) clinic from 2007–2015. The cases consisted of CML patients on imatinib who developed cytopenia. The controls were CML patients on imatinib who did not develop cytopenia. Baseline socio – demographic, clinical, hematologic, and molecular data were retrieved from patients’ les. Chi square or shers’ exact tests were used to analyze for differences between cytopenia and no cytopenia. Binary logistic regressions were employed to identify relationships. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done to identify independent predictors of cytopenia. Odds ratios (OR) were presented including the 95% condence intervals and respective p values. Results A total of 201 patients were studied. Males were 52%, 42% were aged 36–50 years, 70% had symptoms for > 12 months before diagnosis, 78.6% had B symptoms at baseline, 80% had a moderate splenomegaly at baseline, 40% and 37.4% developed cytopenia within 3 months and 3–6 months respectively after imatinib initiation. Baseline neutrophilia, neutropenia, anaemia, thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia was found in 68%, 11%, 11%, 23.5% and 11% respectively. Baseline hemoglobin, neutrophil and platelet level were signicantly different between the cytopenia and the no cytopenia group. On univariable analysis, baseline anemia with hb < 7.9g/dL (p = 0.002), neutropenia (p = 0.001), neutrophilia > 100,000/mm3 (p = 0.002) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.001) increased the odds of developing cytopenia. On multivariable analysis, baseline anaemia (p value < 0.002), neutropenia (p value < 0.001), thrombocytopenia (p value, < 0.001) and thrombocytosis (p value, 0.033) increased the odds of developing cytopenia. Conclusion Odds of cytopenia were higher in presence of baseline cytopenia and thrombocytosis. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for these patients.