Influence of Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching Biology on Students’ Performance in Makueni County Secondary Schools, Kenya
Ndolo, Leonard Musau
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There are great technological advancements in global application of ICT and hence the need for its use in teaching Biology. Lack of application of ICT in pedagogy might have led to poor performance in science subjects like Biology. The study sought to investigate the influence of integration of ICT in teaching Biology on students’ performance in secondary schools. The specific objectives of the study were: to find out the ICT resources available in the schools for use in teaching Biology; to examine the use of ICT in teaching Biology; to find out the challenges faced by teachers in integrating ICT in teaching Biology; to determine the attitude of teachers towards integration of ICT in teaching Biology and to establish whether the use of ICT in teaching Biology influences students’ performance. The study was underpinned by Technology Acceptance Model which is an information systems theory that models how users come to accept and use technology. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. It targeted Form 3 Biology students, Biology teachers and the school administrators in Mbooni-East Sub-County secondary schools. The research used purposive and random sampling techniques to sample the respondents. To collect data, the study used questionnaires for students and Biology teachers, interview schedules for the school administrators and Biology teachers and observation checklists. Pilot study was conducted in a school which was not involved in the main study. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS and presented in tables, charts and graphs. The study found the main ICT resources used in teaching Biology as desk top computers, projectors, laptops and smart phones but some schools did not have any ICT. The study also found out that, though some ICT resources were available in teaching Biology, most of the teachers rarely used them or actively engaged their students in the use of the ICT in Biology. The study identified the main challenges faced in integration of ICT in teaching Biology as: Lack of or insufficient ICT; Poor electricity supply; Limited space or no laboratories present in the school; Lack of skill or knowledge in the use of ICT; Financial constraints in acquisition of ICT resources; Insufficient time in the use of ICT and inadequate ICT. Most of the teachers were found to have negative attitude towards the use of ICT in teaching Biology. All these affected students’ performance which was found to be good when ICT was used. The study recommends: School administrators to ensure that there is a variety of ICT; Teachers to vary the use of ICT in every Biology lesson; Integration of ICT to be done in every Biology lesson for effective conceptual understanding; Teachers to be sensitized on the role of ICT integration in Biology; The school administration to ensure that there is equipped and spacious ICT Resource Centre; Need for regular workshops and seminars for teachers or in-servicing of teachers on effective integration of ICT in teaching Biology and consider ways of improving the teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT.