Determinants of Integration of Information and Communication Technologies In Instruction in Early Childhood Education Programmes in Selected Universities in Kenya
Mwololo, Jsephat Nzikao
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purpose of the study was to establish the extent to which lecturers integrate Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in instruction and to determine how specific factors influence such integration in selected universities in Kenya. The study objectives were; firstly to establish the extent to which lecturers integrate ICT in instruction in ECE programmes. Secondly, to find out relationship between lecturers’ perceived ICT abilities and ICT integration in instruction in ECE programmes. Thirdly, to explore relationship between lecturers’ perceived ICT usefulness and ICT integration in instruction in ECE programmes and finally to find out relationship between availability of ICT leadership support and ICT integration in instruction in ECE programmes. Significant of the study was that university management may use the study findings to determine the scope to which lecturers integrate ICT in instruction and factors influencing it. Results of the study could assist ECE administration to identify and establish ways of encouraging and motivating lecturers to integrate ICT in instruction. In addition, the study findings may help lecturers appreciate the benefits of ICT integration in instruction and seek ways to improve the integration. Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) were used to guide the study. Correlational research design was used. The independent variables were: lecturers’ perceived ICT abilities, lecturers’ perceived ICT usefulness, and availability of ICT leadership support, while the dependent variable was ICT integration in instruction. The target population was all lecturers teaching ECE programmes in public and private universities. Purposive and stratified sampling techniques were used in selecting a sample of 88 lecturers. Pilot study was done using 20 lecturers from two universities; one public and the other private. Questionnaire, observation checklist, and document analysis were the data collection methods used. Content validity of the research instruments was established by the researcher and confirmed by two experts from the department of Educational Communication and Technology of Kenyatta University. Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient of test retest for all the research instruments wascalculated and ranged between 0.88 and 0.92. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Frequencies, means, standard deviations and percentages were calculated and presented on tables and figures while t-test for independent samples and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient were calculated to test the null hypotheses at alpha value 0.05. The relationship between lecturers’ perceived ICT abilities and ICT integration in instruction and between availability of ICT leadership support and ICT integration in instruction were found statistically significant. The best predictor variable for ICT integration in instruction in ECE programmes was lecturers’ perceived ICT abilities. It was concluded that most lecturers who perceived their ICT abilities to be adequate integrated ICT in instruction. Lecturers who perceived ICT to be useful did not translate that to ICT integration in instruction and availability of ICT leadership support positively influenced ICT integration in instruction. Based on the results, it was recommended that lecturers need to constantly train in ICT integration in instruction to enhance their confidence in ICT use and learn to integrate advanced ICT tools in instruction.