Determinants of Job Involvement of Frontline Employees in Classified Hotels in Kwara State, Nigeria .
Haruna, Zainab, A.B
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The hotel industry’s growth has been felt globally. Due to its immense growth, it has therefore attracted both skilled and semi-skilled personnel to work in the labor intensive industry. Being an industry that requires fast and efficient services, there is a need for the hotel industry to establish the factors that may affect its frontline employees’ job involvement. This is due to the fact that, hotels rely heavily on workforce as an important component for service delivery. Thus the overall objective of the study was to examine the determinants of frontline employees’ job involvement in classified hotels in Kwara state Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to establish the relationship between work design characteristics, employee empowerment, perceived organizational support and job involvement of front line employees in classified hotels of Kwara state. The study used a descriptive cross-sectional survey design approach and targeted all classified hotels in the state. The study used stratified and convenience sampling techniques in order to get the required number of respondents. The former was used to put hotels into different categories (strata) whereas the latter was used to select the required number of the study participants from the hotels included in the sampling frame. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using self-completed semi-structured questionnaires using both closedended and open ended questions. Questionnaires were issued to 384 participants that were selected from the forty three classified hotels in Kwara state. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze quantitative data. The former comprised of means and respective standard deviations. The latter encompassed Pearson Correlation coefficient (r) that was used to examine relationships between the study variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to establish the relative importance of the study independent variables (work design characteristics, employee empowerment, and perceived organizational support) on the dependent variable (job involvement). Content analysis technique was used to analyze qualitative data in order to offer more meaning on the quantitative data. Correlation results revealed direct moderate correlations between work design characteristics (r = .361, p < .001), employee empowerment (r = .393, p < .001), and perceived organizational support (r = .312, p < .001) and job involvement. Thus, all null hypotheses indicating no relationships between work design characteristics, employee empowerment and perceived organizational support and job involvement were not supported. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that all the independent variables were significant and together would explain 63.4% of the total variance in job involvement. Nonetheless, employee empowerment was found to be the most significant predictor of job involvement when compared to perceived organizational support and work design characteristics. As a result, managers should take this into account and develop appropriate actions. To this end, they should predominantly develop strategies and put procedures in place to ensure that frontline employees are given the necessary training, allocate duties on the basis of the strength of the staff. Additionally, correct procedures and infrastructure must be identified to build and sustain an enabling work environment in the establishments. Frontline employee need to be assured that they are important to the organization and most importantly, their welfare is well looked into.