Influence of Principals’ Leadership Skills on Teacher Motivation in Public Secondary Schools in Zoba Anseba, Eritrea
Awtseana, Askale Adgoy
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The aspect of how leadership impacts on teachers’ motivation has attracted scholars’ interest globally. The purpose of this study was therefore, to examine the influence of principals’ leadership skills on teachers’ motivation in public secondary schools in Zoba Anseba, Eritrea. The main objectives were: to examine influence of principals’ technical skills on teachers’ motivation, to assess influence of principals’ human relation skills on teachers’ motivation, and to investigate influence of principals’ conceptual skills on teachers’ motivation. The skill theory of leadership developed by Katz (1955) was used to support this study. The study employed descriptive survey design that embraced both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The study was carried out in Zoba Anseba, Eritrea. The target population was 339 (18 principals, 55 departmental heads and 226 teachers). The 18 schools were 6 from Grade 1-11; 7 from Grade 6-11; and 5 from Grade 9-11. Hence, the schools (Grade 9-11) were selected purposively for the main study. Consequently, the 5 principals of these 5 sampled schools were selected purposively for interview. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 20 departmental heads while proportionate allocation method and simple random sampling technique were used to select 65 teachers. This accounts for a total sample size of 90. Data were collected using questionnaire and interview schedules. Content validity was established by seeking expert judgment from professionals in the field of educational management. The test-retest method was used to establish reliability of the instruments. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequencies and Percentages) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression) while, the qualitative data were analyzed thematically. The study found that majority of the principals possesses the human relation skills to influence teachers’ motivation positively at the job. Indeed, the study established that majority of the principals were found incompetent to exhibit technical and conceptual skills at the job thus, exacerbated teachers’ demotivation. The study recommends that the MoE should appoint trained school principals as well as train and supervise those appointed principals through continuous follow-up as to boost teachers’ motivation at the job. Furthermore, the school principals should invest more time and efforts in their ultimate responsibility of helping teachers to facilitate students’ learning through continuous classroom supervision and solving teachers’ main challenges that closely hinder the motive of performing the daily activities at work.