Dependability of Students Learning Outcomes on Performance Appraisal for Teachers in Public Secondary Schools in Kisii County, Kenya
Nyakundi, Gilbert Morara
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The underlying purpose of performance appraisal for teachers is to promote quality teaching and student learning outcomes. However, there is a dearth of research-based literature on dependability of student learning outcomes on performance appraisal for teachers in public secondary schools in Kisii County hence the need for this study whose objectives were to establish the relationships between performance appraisal variants of teacher qualifications, professional development, teacher experience, appraisal ratings and student survey ratings with student learning achievement. The theoretical framework was based on Locke’s (1968) goal-setting and Vrooms’ (1964) expectancy theories. The study adopted the explanatory sequential mixed methods research design. The population was 50,379 comprising of 3,759 teachers and 46,620 students. In phase one, principals, deputy principals and heads of departments participated in their capacity as teachers. Using the simple random sampling technique, a sample of 758 consisting of 362 teachers and 397 students was determined using Slovene’s formula. In the second phase, a sample of 27 comprising of 9 principals, 9 deputy principals and 9 heads of department was purposively selected on the basis of their roles as appraisers under the TPAD framework. Questionnaires for teachers and students were used to collect data in phase one while a semi structured interview schedule for principals, deputy principals and heads of department was used in phase two. The instruments were piloted on 1% of the sample and their validity assessed by two experts in research and educational management respectively. Reliability of the teacher questionnaire was found to be.749 and .771 for the student questionnaire for 7 items in each instrument. Reliability of the semi-structured interview schedule was ascertained using the constant comparative method. Data collected was analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) computer programme. Data was presented in contingency tables and analyzed in terms of frequencies, percentages, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, chi-square and linear regression based on teacher appraisal variables and student learning achievement. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically using direct respondent quotations that were triangulated with findings from phase one. The findings show that the contribution of teacher performance under the TPAD framework to learning achievement was minimal at R=.085. The R² computed yielded a value of .007, suggesting that teacher performance explained .7% of students’ learning achievement in the study locale. However, the multiple regression model constructed to measure influence of performance appraisal on student learning achievement yielded R=.475 while R² computed was .226 suggesting that the model could explain 22.6% of student learning achievement in the study locale. As a result, all the five null hypotheses of this study were upheld. These findings led to the conclusion that TPAD contributes minimally to student learning achievement in public secondary schools in Kisii County. The findings of this study are significant because they provide research-based information useful to TSC and other education stakeholders in developing programmes to elevate and motivate teachers through professional development. Based on the findings, it is recommended that TSC together with other education stakeholders should consider the re-engineering of teacher appraisals to fit within the broader school performance management system that incorporates variables influencing student learning achievement. Finally, further research is recommended to develop a performance management model for schools in which performance appraisal for teachers shall be integrated.