The Determinants of Collaboration and Partnerships Arrangements in Tourism Development among Industry Organisations in Nairobi County, Kenya
Kariuki, Albert Chege
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Collaboration and partnerships arrangements among stakeholder organisations are among the central themes of sustainable tourism development in destinations. These collaborative arrangements have become critical as a result of the realisation that, no single stakeholder organisation can dictate the future of this dynamic and often fragmented industry, more so especially in relationship to study area, the Nairobi County. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of stakeholder collaboration and partnerships arrangements among tourism industry organisations as a tool of enhancing tourism development in Kenya. Specific objectives were; to determine the scope of collaborative arrangements that exists among stakeholder organisations in tourism development, to examine the intensity of the relations that exists in different collaborative arrangements among tourism organisations and their influence on tourism development, to evaluate the prerequisites of effective collaborative arrangements among stakeholder tourism organisation and to explore the potential for Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) as a model of collaborative arrangements among tourism organisations in Kenya. The study adopted a mixed method research design, and specifically QUAL + quan mixed method design type. The population of the study was thirty three stakeholder organisations in Kenya. The study adopted qualitative and quantitative primary data collection methods, using semi-structured interviews, participant observation and questionnaires as data collection instruments. Secondary data was collected through content analysis of various books, journals and websites. The secondary data analysis process started at the beginning of the research and involved a critical review of literature mainly from journals, books, various government and private sector organisations documents and reports. Primary quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics and presented in frequencies, percentages, charts and cross tabulation. Further, primary data was subjected to inferential statistics using correlation and chi square tests. The finding of the study shows that, the existing collaboration and partnerships arrangements in tourism industry in Kenya are not well structured and designed, and have not achieved acceptable thresholds as model of collaborative arrangements. The study recommends the adoption of formal PPPs models as the best practice of collaborative arrangements in tourism development in Kenya.