Instructors’ perceived Facilitation Efficacy in Outdoor Adventure Programs in Kenya a Case of Kenya School of Adventure and Leadership
Kimtai, Rotich Jonathan
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Positive outcomes of outdoor adventure programs depend on the efficacy of the facilitation process. This study sought to assess outdoor instructors’ perceived facilitation efficacy in outdoor adventure programs in Kenya –case of Kenya School of Adventure and Leadership (KESAL). The objectives of the study were to establish facilitation efficacy of outdoor adventure instructors, to determine whether there were significance differences in the facilitation efficacy of the outdoor adventure facilitators based on their gender, experience, and education level. The study also set out to find out the perceived effectiveness of instructor-participant ratio as used in facilitation of the outdoor programs in KESAL. A case study research design was adopted for the study. Data for the study was collected using instructors effectiveness questionnaire (IEQ) questionnaire coupled with structured interviews with five key informants. Data generated was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.A total of 135 KESAL outdoor instructors and KDF cadets successfully completed the questionnaires out of 170 issued. The respondents comprised of 50 outdoor instructors and 85 Kenya Defence Force (KDF) cadets who attended an outdoor education course at Kenya School of Adventure and Leadership. Assessment on the influence of gender on facilitation efficacy indicated male instructors to have high mean compared to female instructors with an independent t-test establishing a significant difference between male and female KESAL outdoor instructors facilitation efficacy p<0.01. There was no significant difference; ANOVA, p>0.01, in terms of education levels and outdoor instructors’ perceived efficacy. In terms of experience and facilitation efficacy of KESAL outdoor instructors, there was no significant difference p>0.01. Instructor- participants’ ratio of 1: (4-6) was preferred by many respondents (KESAL outdoor instructors and KDF cadets) 61%. Nevertheless, a good number of respondents 18% supported the ratio 1: 12 which was the current ratio used at KESAL, independent t-test did not establish statistical difference in instructor-participants ratio preference according to gender p>0.01.The study concluded that KESAL outdoor instructors facilitation efficacy was beyond average. However, there were found to have difficulties in managing stress of participants. The study recommended KESAL to empower females with the aim of appealing to them to enroll in outdoor oriented courses. KESAL to further ensure outdoor instructors maintain outdoor instructors’ motivation through policies that promotes instructors to work long in the institutions and others methods such as positive feedback, appreciation, constructive criticism, tours and occasionally appreciation tokens. It was also recommended that further studies need to explore the technical skills of KESAL outdoor instructors in order to have a comparable literature to affirm conclusions on the efficacy of the instructors.