Factors Influencing Employee Retention in the Hospitality Industry in North-West Region of Nigeria
Matazu, Muntari Ado
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Employee retention is one of the main challenges faced by hospitality industry. In today’s growing competitive global economy, retaining the intellectuals is one of major concern encountered by most industries. However, it still remains one of the understudied issues by the organizations and human resource. Generally the employees leave the organization because of the job dissatisfaction of pay, job interest, job attractiveness, pleasant working condition, nature of job, job enrichment, work environment, good managerial relations, promotion opportunities, co-workers recognition, job fairness and treatment, employee selection, training and development, as well as several other variables are of great influence on the extent to which industry can retain graduate employees. This current study examined the influence of motivational factors on graduates’ perception as they relate to employee retention in the hospitality industry in North-West region of Nigeria. Four specific objectives guided this study. Firstly, to identify the relationship between organizational practices and employee retention, secondly, to find out how human resource management practices influence employee retention, thirdly to determine the rate of employee turnover, and finally, to determine motivational predictor variables influencing employee retention in the hospitality industry in North-West Region, Nigeria. The study adopted cross-sectional exploratory research design, employing both quantitative and qualitative approach in form of survey, with data being gathered via two identical likert scale type self- administered questionnaires and focus group discussions guides for graduates working in the hospitality industry and those who already left the industry. The study was subjected to 5 hypothetical statements that were designed to give solutions to the research problems. This research used Exponential non-discriminative snowball sample of 266 employed graduate as participants who graduated from five institutions offering hospitality and related courses between 2010 and 2014. The research found that there were positive correlation between the motivational factors and employee retention in the hospitality industry which was statistically tested (p< 0.05). Findings also indicated that about 30 percent of employed graduates were found already left their employment within a period of five years. The most important motivational factors were ‘good pay,’ ‘job security,’ and ‘Promotion opportunities.’ Exploring the motivational predictor variables of employee retention, this research contributes that ‘Pay’ and ‘promotion opportunity’ are ranked among the high predictors of employee retention followed by ‘employee selection’ and ‘work fairness’. Overall, the results demonstrated that employed graduates in the hospitality industry had low level of motivation that lead to employee retention. It was reiterated that highly motivated employees posed positive perception and tend to stay on their jobs, while poorly motivated employees developed negative perception and quit. Therefore, the study recommends hospitality industry should ensure proper motivation in terms of monetary and non monetary incentives because study shows that graduates require both monetary and non monetary motivations to remain in the industry.