Behaviour modification techniques used by teachers to change maladaptive behaviours of secondary school students during games in Kimilili -Bungoma County, Kenya
Mukhaye, Loice Ong’ayo
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ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to establish how behavior modification techniques can be applied in handling maladaptive behaviors displayed by boys and girls in secondary schools during games and sports in Kimilili Sub-County, Bungoma County. This study was guided by two theories: Bandura-The Social Learning Theory (1972) and BF Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory (1948). The target population was 498 teachers from 21 secondary schools in Kimilili sub-county. The study involved ninety nine teachers who were purposively selected using Yamane Taro (1967) formula. An exploratory survey design was used to collect data for the study and answer questions. Data was collected using a questionnaire for games teachers. The questionnaire was pilot tested using ten teachers from three secondary schools in order to ascertain and detect any ambiguities or questions that were not easily understood or were poorly constructed. Test and re-test method was used during the pilot study and results subjected to Pearson Product Moment correlation formula to establish validity and reliability of the instruments. The data collected was first coded and entered into the computer and handled using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS adaptation 20). Data was then analyzed and descriptively presented in percentages, tables, means, standard deviation, cross tabulation tables and was then subjected to chi-square statistics. The findings revealed that the students were equally maladaptive when in their own schools or outside their own schools for games and sports. It is the level of misbehavior that differed depending on the type of maladaptive behavior in question. Telling lies was the most common maladaptive behavior portrayed both in their own schools 34.1% and outside their own schools 36.3 %. Basing on the maladaptive behavior portrayed by both males/boys and females/girls the study found out that there was a significant difference in their behavior. The study further revealed that punishment 74.7% was the behavior modification technique often used by teachers to change behavior. The technique mostly used by teachers for bullying 72.5%, fighting 80.2% and for handling use of abusive language 52.7% was punishment. Behavioral contracting was used in handling hazing 57.1% and telling of lies 52.7% while reinforcement was minimally used. These findings are expected to be utilized by the Ministry of Education to improve on the quality of physical education. Teachers can be trained on the use of other techniques other than punishment alone during games and sports. Further research can be carried out to find out why boys bully and fight more during games and sports as compared to girls. A similar study can also be carried out to find out why telling lies was the most portrayed maladaptive behavior both in students’ own school and outside their own school. Further research can also be carried out to find out why students engage in maladaptive behavior mostly when they are away from their own schools.