Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria associated with upper respiratory tract infections in Kitui, Kenya
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Background:This study aimed at determining the prevalence of bacterial agents causing upper respiratory tract infections and their susceptibility patterns to commonly used antibiotics among outpatients in Kitui District Hospital. Methods: A total of 237 throat swabs were collected between November, 2012 to April, 2013 and innoculated onto Blood agar, MacCkonkey agar and Chocolate agar then incubated at 37 oC for 24 hours. Colony morphology and standard biochemical tests were performed for identification and confirmation of the isolates based on their Gram staining and cultural characteristics. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of the bacteria to antibiotics was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. P values of _ 0.05 were considered to have clinical and epidemiological significance. Results: Pathogens were isolated in 95.4 % of the samples collected’ out of this, 5% were mixed cultures involving Candia albicans and either viridans group streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteria isolated were S. aureus with the highest prevalence (44.3%), followed by viridans group streptococci (32.5 %) and Streptococcus pyogenes (13.5%). Resistance of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics in Kitui district hospital was highest in viridians group streptococci (48.2 %) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (40.5%) while Streptococcus pyogenes had the least resistance (28.1 %) and there were no cases of multi-drug resistance. Conclusion: The rate of antibiotic resistance was significantly high and proper interventions should be put in place by the relevant government ministry to prevent these infections and their complications.