Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory potential of dichloromethanolic root extract of clutia abyssinica jaub and spach in rats and mice models
Koech, Samson Cheruiyot
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Various diseases and injuries are always presented with pain, fever and inflammation. These are considered as symptoms associated with various pathological processes in an animal body. Drugs that are used to alleviate pain, fever and inflammation such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs exhibit adverse effects for example cardiac abnormalities, peptic ulcers, liver toxicity and kidney failure. Therefore, there is need to come up with alternative remedies. Herbal medicines are deemed to be safe, have good efficacy and have fewer side effects. Clutia abyssinica is a shrub that is found in East, Central, and South Africa and it has been used traditionally to cure several ailments including malaria, chest pain, gonorrhea, fever, infertility, pain, inflammation, skin diseases and cancer. Roots of this medicinal plant have been used traditionally to prepare decoctions. The aim of the project was to evaluate the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory potential of dichloromethanolic root extract of Clutia abyssinica in animal models. Plant sample material was collected from Kaptebee village, Turbo sub-county in Uasin Gishu County Kenya, and the active components extracted using dichloromethane. Pain, fever and inflammation were induced Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats using acetic acid, turpentine and carrageenan respectively. Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats were grouped into normal control, negative control, positive control and 3 experimental groups. Extracted root extracts were administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice and Wistar albino rats at predetermined doses (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight). The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the plant root extract were compared to diclofenac the (reference drug) while the antipyretic activity was compared to aspirin. The dichloromethanolic root extract of C. abyssinica demonstrated significant analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Number of abdominal writhing was reduced between 33.95-49.51% by dichloromethanolic root extract while the diclofenac (reference drug) reduced abdominal writhing by 46.51%. Reduction in number of abdominal writhings by the extract indicates the plant posse‟s analgesic properties. The elevated temperature was reduced between 0.68-3.34% by the dichloromethanolic root extract while Aspirin the (reference drug) reduced elevated temperature between 3.32-4.96%. Edema was reduced between 0.88-5.34% by the plant extract while diclofenac reduced edema between 2.21-5.35% respectively. Rectal temperature and the size of the edema was reduced more in the third and fourth hours signifying better blockage of mediators responsible for fever and inflammation. Data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by turkey‟s test. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. The extract from Clutia abyssinica may be used as an alternative bioresource in development of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agent. The study therefore, confirms the folklore use of the medicinal plant by Kalenjin community of Kenya to manage pain, fever and inflammation.