The Impact of Military Exercises and Operations on Local Environment
Macharia, Hannah Muthoni
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Like other countries in the world, Kenya and its neighbors have developed their militaries into more complex and highly organized institutions. The military which comprises air, sea and ground forces was largely a creation of the colonial government but have become vital in dealing with conventional and non-conventional security matters. Among the non-conventional security matters, environment has emerged as a new sphere in which the military has been actively involved; as a benevolent and malevolent agent through its exercises and operations. Despite the notable positive contributions, the negative impact of military exercises and operations in the environmental sphere has overshadowed the military as an institution. Sadly, these effects have for a long time been limited to military as a state institution while the negative impacts emanating from military-like activities of non-armed state groups such as militias, rebels, terrorists and guerillas have been ignored. This paper examines the impact of military services and operations on the environment in relation to military as an institution as well as those linked to military- like activities of the non-armed state groups such as militias, rebels, guerillas, and terrorist groups. The study relied on desktop review of existing literature on military, military activities. The analysis showed that military activities and exercises affect local environment directly and indirectly.