A survey of the problems affecting the implementation of The 8:4:4 curriculum for industrial education in Secondary Schools in Nairobi Province
Wainaina, Stephen Gituku
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The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the various problems affecting the implementation of the Industrial Education (IE) aspects of the 8:4:4 system of education in secondary schools. The study was restricted to schools in Nairobi Province. Problems were investigated with regard to philosophy of IE, utilization of IE teachers, availability of teaching facilities, time allocated for implementation of IE programme and financing of the programme. Six research questions guided the study. These were: 1. Is IE at secondary school level in the 8:4:4 system a prevocational area of study or does it still have a predominantly general outlook? 2. What are the main qualities of IE teachers in secondary schools in Nairobi Province and how are the teachers utilized? 3. Do the teaching facilities for various IE subjects in Nairobi secondary schools measure up to the minimum requirements prescribed by the curriculum developers: 4. How is the IE programme being financed in secondary schools in Nairobi Province and has the mode of funding affected the implementation of the programme? 5. Was the time allocated to prepare for and implement the new curriculum adequate? 6. What do curriculum developers, school heads, IE teachers and students consider as problems affecting the implementation of IE programme in secondary schools in Nairobi Province? Data we recollected from school heads, curriculum developers, IE teachers and students through questionnaires and interviews. Observations were made on schools offering IE subjects to determine the adequacy and utilization of teaching facilities in those schools. The research findings revealed that there were some major factors affecting the implementation of IE programme in secondary schools in Nairobi Province. Some of the major problems that were identified include misconception of IE, lack of adequate motivation of IE teachers, lack of adequate teaching facilities, limited funds and time and inadequate supervision of the programme by the Inspectorate. Various recommendations were made based on the findings of this study. The main recommendations made include the need to either abandon the use of the term IE in referring to the present cluster of practical subjects offered in secondary schools or use the term IE but revise its objectives to conform with its formal definition; the need to establish schools with minimum teaching facilities before they start offering IE subjects; the need for more time to teach IE subjects in secondary schools and the need for replications of the study to cover the entire country.