Principals’ Management of Instruction and Its Influence on Learners’ Academic Achievement in Public Secondary Schools in Baringo County, Kenya
Principals are crucial in providing effective leadership when managing their schools’ instructional programs thereby enhancing the quality of students’ learning and performance in national examinations. This study sought to investigate teachers’ perceptions of how principals manage instructional programs in public secondary schools in Baringo County. The study adopted a survey research design and employed mixed methods of inquiry. The study used a sample of 48 public secondary schools, 12 principals and their deputies, and 253 teachers. A structured teacher questionnaire constructed on five-point Likert type scale and an unstructured interview guide were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics comprising the mean and standard deviation, and inferential statistics involving t-test, Pearson correlation and ANOVA were calculated. The findings revealed that principals managed instructional programs by supervising and evaluating instruction, co-ordinating the implementation of curriculum and instruction, and monitoring students’ academic progress. The results further showed that there was no significant difference between Extra County and County public secondary schools (t (251) =.917, p>.05) in teachers’ perception of principals’ management of instructional programs but a significant difference among high, average and low performing public secondary schools (F (2,250) = 1.524, p˂ .05). There was also no statistical significant relationship (r (251) =.123**, p>.05) between the perception of principals’ management of instructional programs public secondary schools and students’ academic achievement at KCSE. The study recommends that principals prioritise management of instructional programs in their schools; the County’s DQAS intensifies inspection of schools and that KEMI should train principals on instructional leadership skills that enhance students’ instruction and performance at KCSE.