Migration of Human Resources for Health at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi County, Kenya.
Obura, Brendah N.
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The importance of health workers to the effective functioning of healthcare systems is widely recognized. Shortages of health workers constitute a significant barrier to achieving health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and expanding health interventions in developing countries. In Kenya, internal migration of workers, from rural areas to urban areas, is just as serious a problem as international migration. Shortages in the health workforce are aggravated by the unequal distribution of health workers as a result of economic, social, professional and security factors that all sustain a steady internal migration of health personnel from rural to urban areas, from the public to the private sector, and out of the health profession itself. This research was undertaken at Kenyatta National Hospital. The main objective of this study was to establish determinants of migration of human resource for health at KNH. The research was a cross sectional descriptive design study conducted in the month of March, 2012. A sample size of 360 was determined using Fisher et al method of 2003.Data was collected using questionnaires with open and close ended questions. Key informant interviews were held with the various heads of departments to gain deeper insight into causes of migration. A strict inclusion criterion was followed to select respondents. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12.0.1 and presented in figures and tables. Chi-square test was applied to determine the relationship between independent and dependent variables. The results showed that majority of the respondents 37% were aged between 30 to 39. This means that KNH employs regularly, an indicator of growth or turnover of staff. The following factors influenced the migration of HRH: Marital status (x2 =6.082, df=4, p=0.001), divorcees and those separated were associated with migration: Years of service (χ2=10.010, df =3, p=0.001): Socio-economic factors especially on income and job description (χ2 =30.45, df= 8, p= 0.000): Management of KNH (χ2 =19.696, df=4, p=0.000) influenced migration of HRH among other factors. The study revealed that majority (67%) of HRH was happy with their current job and have attained the necessary skills to perform specific duties assigned to them. In conclusion, the study recommends that KNH put in place policies to retain health workers. A number of non-financial incentives are highly valued: improved working conditions; training and supervision; and good working conditions, communications, health care and educational opportunities