Educational Inputs and their Implications for Output in Public Secondary Schools in Nyarugenge and Nyamasheke Districts, Rwanda
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Despite the Rwandan government's efforts to improve quality of education by increasing the supply of educational inputs in secondary schools, educational output continues to be below international standards. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether and to what extent the relationship exists between educational inputs and output in public secondary schools in Nyamasheke and Nyarugenge districts. To this end, this study sought to identify educational inputs provided in public secondary schools located in Nyamasheke and Nyarugenge districts, determine the extent to which each educational input provided correlate with educational output, find out the determinants of educational output and explore the strategies adopted by school managers to enhance educational output. This study was guided by Education Production Function theory and it adopted a correlation research design. The target population involved 2248 students, 70 head teachers and 2 district education officers, making a total population of 2320. A sample of 241 students, 21 head teachers and 2 district education officers was used. Stratified sampling, simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used to select this sample. Questionnaires for students and for head teachers, document review schedule, and interview schedule with district education officers were used to collect relevant data. Expert judgment and test-retest techniques were used to test instruments' validity and reliability respectively. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means were used to describe the provision of inputs, and Pearson r as well as regression analysis were used to describe the implications of educational inputs for output. Thematic analysis approach was used for qualitative data. The findings were presented in graphs, tables and texts. After data analysis, it was found that educational inputs are not sufficiently provided. It was also found that among endogenous inputs, teacher academic qualification, professional training, experience, availability of library, and laboratory student classroom ratio, are the key predictors of students performance as each of them account for between 41% and 78% of student's performance. Furthermore, it was found that among exogenous inputs, the key predictors of students' performance are their prior performance and their parental educational level as they explain between 18% and 43% of students' performance. Among financial inputs the study revealed that expenditures on staff, on boarding, and recurrent expenditure are the key predictors of students' performance as their contribution varies between 44% and 62% of school mean performance. It was recommended that the government and other stakeholders should invest more in provision of the key educational inputs to enhance output. It was also recommended that means should be provided to implement the strategies adopted to boost the quality of educational output. Future researchers were recommended to carry out a similar research in primary schools and universities to see if educational inputs provided have the same implications at these levels of education.