Integration of ICT In Instruction of English in Secondary Schools in Matungulu District, Machakos County, Kenya
The worlds’ developed countries began intense integration of ICT in teaching and learning that slowly filtered into some African countries. In Kenya, use of computers was also embraced which resulted into the introduction of integration of ICT in instruction in secondary schools. However, schools have had computers but the ways to use them effectively have evolved slowly. The study was done in secondary schools in Matungulu district, Machakos County, Kenya. Although there is provision of the technology facilities, e-learning materials that have led to digitization of content of English taught in secondary schools, knowledge and skills on how to integrate computers in teaching and learning of English, the study findings have revealed that integration of ICT in instruction of English is limited. The purpose of this study was to find out and document the factors that influence integration of ICT in instruction of English. The objectives of this research were to establish the extent to which teachers have acquired skills on ICT integration in instruction of English; to find out strategies used in instruction of English and establish some of the factors that affect teachers’ ability in the use of ICT in instruction of English. The study was based on the Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory that affirms that external influence, such as computers and social attributes activate different environmental reactions. In this case computers motivate teaching and learning bearing in mind that many concepts and cognitions are abstract and difficult to express through human language. It advocates on three-way relationships where learners need to be exposed to the correct learning activities, observe and repeatedly do them. A conceptual frame work summarised integration of ICT in instruction of English in forms 1-3. It targeted girls’ and boys’ day and boarding secondary schools of which boarding schools formed the higher percentage in the district. The study used a descriptive research design in which stratified sampling method was used to categorize the schools into 5 provincial and 10 district schools. Purposive sample was used to select 65 respondents of the study. They were 15 principals and 50 teachers of English, who were used to obtain qualitative and quantitative data. The data was collected using questionnaires and an observation checklist. Qualitative data was described while quantitative data analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5 and presented in frequencies, tables, percentages and graphs. The findings of the study have revealed that there has been limited use of ICT in instruction of English in secondary schools. This was attributed to inadequate training of teachers on integration of ICT in teaching, few TSC deployed teachers of computer, lack of training of teachers on computer maintenance and inadequate ICT facilities and infrastructure. The study recommended that the government should put up more ICT training programmes, TSC deploy teachers of computer to increase the confidence of teachers to use the technology and availability of ICT facilities and infrastructure at a reduced cost.