Impact of student expenditure differentials on academic achievement at secondary school level in Kikuyu district-Kenya
Macharia, Nancy Wangui
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The study highlighted the relationship between public secondary school inputs in terms of student expenditure and how that impact on academic achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of secondary school student expenditure differentials on academic achievements in Kikuyu district, Kenya. The specific objectives of this study were to: establish the academic achievement, establish the student expenditure, determine the relationship between student expenditure and academic achievement and lastly to assess the impact of other determinants of students' academic achievement in national, county and district schools in Kikuyu district. The findings may help the policy makers in statistically confirming whether or not the amount of money spent per student would make a statistically significant difference in academic performance. The study was based on production function model which is used to represent the relationship of outputs and inputs. A descriptive survey research design in quantitative approach was used in this study. The target population was all the 25 public secondary schools in Kikuyu district. The sample for the study was 22 principals since three schools were used for piloting. A questionnaire for principals and document analysis guide was used to collect data. The instruments were presented to two experts in Economics of Education from the department of Educational Management Policy and Curriculum Studies of Kenyatta University for face and content validation. Test-retest method was used for testing the reliability of the instruments. The questionnaires were delivered to schools and collected after one day. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as t-test were utilized to determine the relationship between student expenditure and academic achievement by school category. Findings revealed that: national schools had the highest mean scores followed by county schools and lastly the district schools performed dismally, there are great discrepancies in the student expenditure in the three categories of schools, there was a relationship between the student expenditure and academic achievement in the national schools, county and district schools. Based on the findings, the following conclusions were made from the study: national schools had the highest mean scores followed by county schools and lastly the district schools performed dismally, there was a relationship between the student expenditure and academic achievement in the national schools, school expenditure had an effect in students' achievement in district schools and that there were other factors that impacted on students' academic achievement apart from the student expenditure. The study recommended that the government should monitor how school funds are allocated and how they are used in the school for improvement of students' performance. That it may be the misallocation, which leads to wastage of funds, and the worst use or the exploitation of funds and resource inputs that is responsible for the lower academic achievement in the schools. There is need to review the amount of money that students pay in school and how much of the money benefit students directly. The study suggested that there is a need to carry out a study on the influence of government cost sharing policy on students' academic achievement in secondary schools and another study on the influence of student expenditures on academic achievement in rural and urban schools.