Safety and Antimicrobial Properties o f Euclea d ivinorum Hiern , Chewing Sticks Used for Management of Oral H ealth in Nairobi C ounty , Kenya
Wanjau, R. N.
Gikonyo, N. K.
Ngari, F. W.
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Chewing sticks from Euclea divinorum root have long been used in management of oral health in Kenya But various safety aspects and antimicrobial data are limited. The mineral content was determined using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TRXF) while phytochemical composition was assessed using standard procedures. Toxicity effects of extracts on growth rate, relative organ body weight and function of kidney, liver,bone marrow and histopathological changes on major organs was assessed. Disc diffusion method was used to assess antimicrobial activity of the chewing sticks extracts against Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Lac to bacillus acidophilus.The safety of chewing sticks extracts was studied by orally administering 1g/kg body weight of organic extracts daily in mice for 21 days and determining changes in body organ weight, hematological and biochemical parameters.Results indicate presence of high levels of minerals including lead and aluminium. Various groups of phytochemical components were detected. Organic extracts Showed growth inhibitory effects on test organisms compared to water extracts. Oral administration of Organic body weight on mice for 21 days resulted to retarded growth, increased organ body weight index and alteration of he patocytes on liver cells. Significant (P< 0.05) variation of thrombocytes, creatinekinase and a spartate aminotransferase was recorded.This shows that extracts of E. divinorum Roots have toxic effects and should be used with care;gargling of extracts is recommended instead of swallowing.