Prophylactic and curative activities of extracts from Warburgia ugandensis Sprague (Canellaceae) and Zanthoxylum usambarense (Engl.) Kokwaro (Rutaceae) against Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium berghei.
Gicheru, M. M.
Were, P. S.
Ozwara, H. S.
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ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This work reports the anti-plasmodial activities of Warburgia ugandensis and Zanthoxylum usambarense commonly used as phytomedicines against malaria by some Kenyan communities. AIM OF STUDY: To determine the anti-plasmodial activities of extracts from Warburgia ugandensis and Zanthoxylum usambarense against Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium berghei. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight plant extracts were screened for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against Plasmodium knowlesi, in a 96-well plate incubated at 37 degrees C on a RPMI culture medium supplemented with baboon serum. Of the eight, three were investigated for prophylactic and curative activities in BALB/c mice against drug-sensitive Plasmodium berghei in a 4-day test at a dose rate of 200mg/kg/day. RESULTS: Inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) values of between 3.14 and 75 microg/ml, up to 69% chemosuppression of parasites growth and over 80% survivorship of treated mice were observed. CONCLUSION: The two medicinal plants, Warburgia ugandensis and Zanthoxylum usambarense possess bioactive compounds against malaria parasites and could be exploited for further development into malaria therapy.