Evaluating the occurrence of schistosoma haematobium and geohelminthes infection in residents of two villages in Msambweni district of coast province, Kenya
Matonge, Paul Mwambua
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The presence of multiple concurrent infections, or polyparasitism, is quite common in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Msambweni District in the Coast Province of Kenya is highly endemic for Schistosoma haematobium. Previous studies showed an overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in Msambweni District at 40% to 60%. This is a prevalence way above the national prevalence of approximately 23%. There has been continued support by various agencies, including the government and non-governmental organizations (NGO’s) in providing treatment and control of the disease in the area. However, the long term impact of these programs in the reduction of the overall prevalence of the disease has not been fully evaluated. This survey of 1232 people aged 5-78 years in two villages in Vingujini Sub-Location Msambweni District of Coast Province, Kenya was conducted to determine prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and soil transmitted helminthes infections. Urine and stool samples were collected and examined for eggs of Schistosoma haematobium and intestinal helminthes. Haematuria was determined using urine dip strips. Hemoglobin levels were determined to establish the relationship between the intensity of hookworm disease and anemia. The overall occurrence of parasitic infections were, 43.99% for Schistosoma haematobium, 29.63% for hookworm disease, 0.49% for ascariasis and 24.59% for trichuriasis (N=1232). Only 32.71% were free from any of the parasitic infections screened. Age was related to infection with schistosomiasis (f=95.17, p>0.01), hookworm disease (f=11.51, p= 0.010) and trichuriasis (f=26.46, p>0.01). Infection with Schistosomiasis was highly correlated with Trichuris infection (r=0.96, p=0.006). Intensities of Schistosomiasis and hookworm were highly related to age (p<0.01). High intensities of Schistosoma haematobium were associated with haematuria (f=639.99, p<0.01). Intensity with hookworm was correlated to anemia (r=-0.091, p<0.01). Individuals with heavy and light infections were more likely to suffer from anemia than individuals with low intensities or the non-infected (f=5.5, p<0.01). The results of this study have shown that the problem of urinary schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthes persists despite the control programs and enhancement of these control programs is required.