Environmental and demographic factors influencing drug and substance abuse among secondary school students in Kisumu Town East, Kenya
Nyatuoro, Joshua Otieno
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Drug abuse is a major public health problem among the youth worldwide especially in developingcountries. The accessibility, affordability, and consumption of abused drugs by the youths have attracted great concern among public health personnel. The impact of drug abuse in human health and well-being is substantial and its contribution ranges from medical, social, family, legal and economic problems which are created by its uncontrolled use. Thus, drug abuse-related problems among the youth cannot •be ignored. Evidence from around the world reveals that there is an upward trend in the misuse of psychoactive drugs among the youth. There is limited documented information on the extent of drug abuse among secondary school students Kisumu Town East, Kenya. The main objective of this study was to investigate environmental and demographic factors influencing drug and substance abuse among secondary school students in Kisumu Town East, Kenya. The findings of the study would be used to guide policy in the control and prevention of drug abuse in secondary schools. Descriptive cross-sectional study design was used in the study. Stratified sampling was used to determine the number of boys' schools, girls' schools and mixed schools to be selected. A total of eight schools were . sampled proportionately in the ratio of 1:1:6 (boys, girls and mixed) respectively. The study population in this study was students in public secondary schools in Kisumu Town East, Kenya. Systematic random sampling was used to select respondents proportionate to population size, the cluster and the school selected. A total of three hundred and .twenty nine students were sampled for this study. Among the respondents, one sixty seven were girls while boys were one hundred and sixty two. Data collection was done through administration of structured questionnaire. Cross tabulation was used to show interrelationship between the dependent and independent variables. Chi-square test was used to test the existence of relationships between the variables and odds ratio used to determine the strength of the risks on exposure (p<0.05 was considered statistically significant). The study found out that demographic factors influencing drug and substance abuse were gender (Odds ratio=l.90), mothers marital status at birth (p=O.03), number of siblings (p=O.01) and area of residence (p=0.02). Some family environmental factors influencing drug and substance abuse were mother's educational level and leisure time (p=O.Ol) family health (Odds ratio=2.70 and expectation from parents (Odds ratio=O.30). Some school environmental factors which influenced drug and substance abuse were distance to the nearest wine and spirit shop (Odds ratio=2.22), guest speakers (Odds ratio=O.62), school achievement (p=O.Ol), class repetition (Odds ratio=1.67), satisfaction with school (Odds ratio=O.45) and non students abuse in school (Odds ratio=1.89). The study recommended that the Ministry of Education should introduce clear policies on drug abuse prevention in learning institutions and formulate strategic plans which can promote academic achievements in schools as-a strategy in fighting drug abuse in schools.