Characterization of Escherichia Coli strains and Salmonella Enterica serovars isolated in Gallus Gallus and their antimicrobial susceptibility
Wesonga, Makokha Stephen
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Indigenous chiken production in most African countries including Kenya is traditionally based on free feed resources available in the sorrounding environment. There is a high risk of zoonosis that could be an important sourse of enteric pathogens transmissible to humans. The apparently healthy chiken, like other food animals shed enteric pathogens, transmissible to risk of zoonosis that could be an important source of enteric pathogens, notably Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli that are associated with antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and salmonella enterica isolated from indigenous chicken rectal swabs in a leading slaughterhouse cum market outlet in Nairobi, Kenya. Seventy E. coli strains showed resistance phenotypes to one, two or more antibiotics. The most common antimicrobial resistance phenotypes to one, two or more antibiotics. The most common antimicrobial resistance pattern was the single resistance pattern to Tetracycline (21.43%), followed by Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole and Tetracycline (14%), Augumentin, Amplicillin, Cotrimoxazole and Tetracycline (4.29%), Augumentine, Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole, Tetracycline, Kanamycin and Chloramphenicol (2.86%), Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol Cotrimoxazole, Tetracycline (2.86%); and Cefuroxime, Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole and Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Augumentin and Amplicillin (1.43%) respectively. The highest rate of resistance was against Tet (55.7%), followed by cot (40%). Third in line of resistance was Amp 32.86%, followed by Aug (11.43%), low or moderate resistance was against Chl (8.57%), Kan (4.29%), and Crx (2.86%) (P<0.0002). Salmonella typhimurium recovered displayed single resistance pattern to Tet (16.67%), Gen Cot Tet (8.33%), Amp Cot Tet (8.33%), Aug Amp Cot Tet (8.33%) and Amp Cot Chl (16.67%). The highest resistance was against Tet (58.3%), Cot (41.7%), Amp (33.3%), Chl (16.7%), Aug and Gen (8.3%) respectively (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Routine surveillance at slaughter/market outlets for Escherichia coli and salmonella enterica Typhimurium should be done to identify infected flocks as a procedure for food safety and security program.