Diffrerences in cardiovascular disease,biochemical risk markers,physical activity and nutrition between an urban and pastoral sample in Kenya
The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in blood pressure, cardiovascular disease bio-chemical risk markers, physical activity and nutrition, between an Urban (US) and Pastoral (PS) sample, in the context of the global epidemiological transition taking place globally causing a shift in mortality and morbidity from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases. A total of 133 adults from both samples meeting the inclusion criteria, were randomly recruited from clusters in sub-locations, villages and homesteads from available demographic data available from Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) on Kirisia and Kibera divisions in Samburu and Nairobi, in Kenya. Data was collected using questionnaires, venipuncture, blood pressure measurement and anthropometric measurements. Resulting data was stratified and analyzed by locality, gender and age-category using SPSS V 11.5 and computed in terms of percentages and frequencies. Chi-square test was used to test for differences in proportions. Student t-test and ANOV A were used to compare means where applicable and in cases where there were more than two means being compared. The level of significance at 0.05 was used for the statistical tests. In case of significant F-ratio, post-hoc analysis was done using DMRT. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of cardiovascular disease, p-values <0.05 were considered significant. There was no difference in proportions between the two groups. Means for SBP, apoB, apoA, apoB/A ratio, Co-QlO, were significantly different at p<.019, p<.OOl, p<.OOl, p<.OOl and p<.OOl respectively, between these two samples. Means for lifestyle factors: MET mins/week (physical activity), Lymphocytes, BMI and MUAC (nutrition status markers) were significantly different at p<.OOl, p<.027, p<.OOl and p<.OOl respectively. Mean nutrient intake was significantly different at p<.030, p<.039, p<.OOl, p<.009, p<.025, p<.049 and p<.OOl, for protein, carbohydrates, dietary cholesterol, SAF A, MUF A, ORA and Folic acid between the two samples. Mean %B. Fat and WC were significantly different at p<.OOl and p<.OOl in the two samples respectively. MUAC in both samples could be used to predict Systolic BP. Lymphocytes count could be used to predict Co-QlO in the US while derived % B. Fat could be used to predict ApoB/ A ratio in the PS. The Urban sample had a higher CVD risk than the Pastoral sample therefore perhaps at a more advanced stage of the epidemiological transition.