Teaching techniques that enhance integration in the developement of English language skills in secondary schools in Gatundu District, Kenya
Ogalo, Michael O.
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This study examined teaching techniques that enhance integration in the development of English language skills in secondary schools in Gatundu District, Kenya. The researcher used survey design. The overall purpose of the study was to investigate teaching techniques that enhance the integration in the development of English language skills. Both purposive and stratified random samplings were used to select schools and respondents. A sample of 20 English language teachers and 10 heads of departments of English (HOD) were selected. Purposive sampling was used in the selection of 2 'provincial schools and Gatundu District. Teachers were drawn mainly from forms 1 and 2 classes. Data were collected using three instruments: questionnaires, interview schedule, and classroom observation schedule. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) was used for data processing and analysis. The data were mainly analyzed using descriptive statistics in form of frequency distribution, cross tabulation and percentages. The following were the main findings of the study: It was not possible to integrate the four language skills in a 40-minute lesson; respondents attributed the absence of integration of the four language skills to the large class size and time; listening and speaking are rarely given attention; English language teachers used very few activities in their teaching; lecture technique was the most commonly used in teaching; most teachers had a bachelor degree. Some conclusions drawn were: Teachers of English don't integrate the four language skills when teaching; forty minutes and large class size don't allow integration in the development of language skills; teachers of English concentrate on developing writing and reading skills ignoring listening and speaking" skills. Teachers still dominate classroom interactions by employing lecture as a teaching technique. Emanating from the findings and conclusions the following recommendations were made: teachers should explore the use of a variety of teaching techniques that enhance integration in the development of four basic English language skills when teaching, teachers lay emphasis on techniques that enhance linguistic and communicative competence in the four language skills, the techniques or activities chosen by teachers should reflect integration of the four language skills, and that the skills should not be taught in isolation as recommended in the English language syllabus. Therefore, it is recommended that for the integration in the development of English language skills to be realized, teachers should use techniques such as: group work, discussion, dialogue, debate, hot seating and questions and answer techniques. English language teachers also need to modify the lecture technique to make it better, English language teachers need also to use a variety of activities which involve the students to participate such as: games, role-play, debate, and discussions. Finally there is a need to lay emphasis on listening and speaking skills, be tested in the national examination.