Impact of female genital mutilation on education of girls with hearing impairement in Gucha County-Kenya
Muma, Hilda Kimonge
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The aim of this research was to find out the impact of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) on education of girls with hearing impairment in Gucha County which is in Kenya. FGM is the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia (WHO, 1995). It results in immediate Physical Problems, for example, intense pain and/or hemorrhage that can lead to shock during and after the procedure, hemorrhage can also lead to anemia, wound infection, including tetanus, damage to adjoining organs from the use of blunt instruments by unskilled operators and urine retention from swelling and/or. blockage of the urethra (Koso-Thomas, 1987). According to Rushwan, H. (1996) it also leads to long term complications like Painful or blocked menses, recurrent urinary tract infections, dermoid cysts, and keloid scars(hardening of the scars), infertility and increases the risk of HIV infection. It is against this background that the researcher set to find out the impact of FGM on education for girls with hearing impairments. According to Adoyo P.O (2002) children with hearing impairment have continued to lag behind their hearing counterparts in all academic achievements. This has resulted from the broad regular curriculum which is extensive and demanding and is not adapted to meet the special needs of these children. The effects of FGM outlined above equally affect hearing impaired girls who undergo the process. The objectives of the research were to find out the impact of FGM on: Class attendance, discipline, academic performance, transition to the next level of education after FGM in girls with hearing impairment, and if there are administrative or educational arrangements to assist the students after undergoing FGM to 'advance their studies. The study used survey design to collect data by using questionnaires on literate girls and teachers and interview schedules on illiterate girls and the headteachers who preferred the method because of administrative commitments of lacking time to fill the questionnaires. Thus, the survey design emphasizes frequency or number of answer? to the same question by different people (Orodho, 2005). The target population included all girls with hearing impairment and their teachers who were 40 in number in all the following 5 units: Nduru, Nyakembene, Bombaba, Magena and Nyaigesa 'in Gucha county. The sample size constituted of 23 girls and 7 teachers, making a total of 30 respondents. The research , used simple random sampling which is a procedure in which all individuals in the defined population have an equal independent chance of being selected as a member of the sample (Orodho, 2005). The researcher used purposive sampling method for selecting all girls from upper classes( 4-8) only. To achieve the objectives outlined above a T -test was conducted out to determine the significance of the predictor variables. This choice was taken because the sample size was small. A coefficient of the predictor variable was considered significant if it had a value greater or equal to 2.58 at 95% significant level. The impact was found to be significant as 67% of the predictor variables had values above 2.58. The research recommended that Alternative Rite of Passage should be used instead of the procedure as a means of eradicating FGM. Also low reinforces should apprehend and prosecute any parent or guardian who practices FGM.