Generation and management of solid and liquid wastes in the Jua kali sector: a case study of metal work and motor vehicle jua kali enterprises in Kamukunji and Ziwani areas of Nairobi Kenya
The study was carried out in the City of Nairobi, among metal workers and motor vehicle repairers who are registered as members of Kamukunjia and Ziwani Jua Kali associations. The study's objectives were: 1. To find out types of wastes generated by the metal work and motor vehicle Jua Kali sub-sectors and determines the artisans’ perception of the generation level; 2. To determine the way these wastes are disposal of and examine the environmental quality implications of the waste disposal techniques used: 3. To determine the determine the degree of awareness among metal work and motor vehicle Jua Kali artisans regarding the impact of the waste disposal habits on the environment; 4. To analyse the role of the government in ensuring proper waste disposal by the metal work and motor vehicle Jua Kali artisans. A total sample of 79 artisans was drawn for the study. The sampling procedure involved both simple random and systematic random sampling. Simple random sampling was used to identify starting points while systematic sampling was used to pick the subsequent (10-th) units of analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used. In particular, structured interview schedules were used to collect quantifiable information from the artisans, while unstructured interviews with the officials of the Jua Kali associations and the City Council, and non-participant observation were used in the collection of qualitative data. Quantitative data was processed into frequencies and percentages that facilitated generation of figures and tables. The figures and tables were then used to explain the findings in relations to the study's questions and objectives. To determine the 'Goodness of Fit' of the results, a chi-square (X2) test was utilized. In brief, the key findings of the study were that a considerable variety of wastes are generated in the Jua Kali sector. These include: Worn-out metal parts/metal cut-offs, plastic containers, rubber pieces, waste cleaning materials (e.g. rugs, sawdust, waste rinse water /waste water, soil , among others) grease, oils, acids tar, paint, soap chemicals paper products, smashed glass, leather pieces, oil filters and battery shells. The level of generation was rated as high by the artisans. The methods used to manage and dispose the stated wastes mainly include burning and open dumping. This implies manner of waste disposal currently in place in the Jua Kali sector enhances environmental degradation rather than guard against or reduce the problem. Although the artisans were aware of the kind of impact the used disposal methods have on the environment. They lack support that could enable them put into use the appropriate waste management strategies. The leading problems the artisans encounter in the process of managing the wastes include lack of storage facilities, transport, disposal sites within proximity, and support from the City Council. Consequently, the only alternative that they are left with is burning and/or open dumping the wastes. The study further established that the government is not involved in waste management by the metal work and motor vehicle Jua Kali sector. It has concentrated more on the provision of land and construction of sheds for use by the artisans without necessarily giving guidance and material support in the management of wastes from these sub-sectors. No programmes exist that are aimed at training of and awareness creation among the artisans in regard to waste management. Thus, from the study's findings, it is concluded that there is need for serious attention to be paid to the issue of waste management in the metal work and motor vehicle Jua Kali sector, and generally recommended that the artisans be provided with material support and empowerment through informal environment education to enable the sector be ideally a source of sustainable development.