The development of christian industrial education in Kenya: a case of christian industrial training centre (CITC) Nairobi 1958-1995
This study discusses the development of Christian Industrial Education in Kenya, from a historical perspective, and takes the example of Christian Industrial Training Center (CITC) Nairobi form 1958-1995. The study utilised both the primary and secondary sources of data. As a prerequisite to understanding the establishment and development of CITC Nairobi, an examination has been made on the background to the Church Missionary Society (CMS) work in Kenya. The study shows that western education in Nairobi was introduced and shouldered for a long period of time by the Catholic and the CMS missionaries. The chief aim of these missionary groups was to convert the African to Christianity. Religious education and industrial work featured prominently in this education. Industrial education was seen as a means of promoting the virtues of self-discipline, self-reliance, punctuality, responsibility and humility, which the Africans were said to be lacking. The thesis shows that although Christian missionaries pioneered the establishment of Western schooling in Kenya, formal schools in Nairobi developed at a later date. The colonial government's contribution towards the advancement of African education in Nairobi was very minimal. They mainly encouraged those Africans who were working in Nairobi because they were to go back to the rural areas when not in employment. The study subsequently shows that it was in the light of these grievances; they made strong demands for increased educational opportunities for their children. The study further gives a short history of the development of Pumwani African location and its impact on the development of CITC Nairobi. The CITC Nairobi project was initiated by the CMS to provide industrial education to unemployed school leavers. The study concludes by revealing that the CMS were indeed active contributors in the establishment and development of CITC Nairobi though the government encouraged the programme and from 1972 provided some financial assistance before pulling out and leaving it under the CMS control. The day-to-day running of the centre became the responsibility of the CMS and their contribution was in form of finance materials and personnel. The study shows that CITC faced a number of problems in the process of its development. These problems had to do with finance and unemployment of its graduates among others. Despite the problems, the study shows that the institution made a minimal contribution to the training of school leavers and on the society. Besides discussing the establishment and development of CITC Nairobi, they study suggests other possible areas for further research. These include a thorough study of other Christian missionary institutions' contribution to vocational education as well as the contribution of other CITCs in the country. If undertaken, these studies would be added contribution to the history of education.