Factors influencing utilization of resources in teaching Kiswahili in selected public secondary schools in Transmara District, Kenya
Mogeni, Jackson Mobisa
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the utilization of resources in the teaching of Kiswahili in selected public secondary schools of Transmara district. It also sought to identify the resources that are available for teaching Kiswahili in secondary schools and the factors impeding the teachers from using resources effectively in the teaching of Kiswahili. The study was conducted in public secondary schools of Transmara district. Data were collected using a questionnaire, resources checklist, and classroom observation schedule. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented with the aid of frequency tables, graphs and percentages. The study findings revealed that most Kiswahili teachers were males. Although most of the Kiswahili teachers in Transmara district were academically and professionally qualified, and had taught for several years, they had had very little post-training sensitization on the importance and uses of instructional resources. Most of them generally appreciated the role instructional resources play in the instructional process, but they had hardly knew or used most of the resources available in their schools, except textbooks and chalkboards. Print resources were the most available teaching resources in secondary schools in the district. Most of the available instructional resources were inadequate both in quality and quantity. Schools and parents were the major providers of instructional resources for teaching Kiswahili. Most teachers were rarely involved in the acquisition process. Very few resources were being prepared locally by the teachers for teaching Kiswahili. The teachers preferred video, flat pictures, charts, audio cassettes, handouts, class readers, pamphlets, radio, newspapers, diagrams and flash cards in the teaching of Kiswahili. The main factors that influenced the teachers' choice of resources for teaching Kiswahili were the availability of the resources, the learners' level of understanding, the class or and the learners' entry behaviour. The major problems the teachers expressed as impeding their effective use of instructional resources were that some resources made them take a lot of time in teaching topics, and that some resources were unsuitable in teaching some of the Kiswahili topics being taught. Based on the findings of this study, several recommendations were made. The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology should organize more seminars, workshops and other in-service courses frequently to familiarise Kiswahili teachers with a wide range of resources and their potentials; using highly qualified experts as resource persons. The Inspectorate Department of the Ministry should conduct regular visits to schools to assess the availability, state and utilization of instructional resources. The Ministry, parents and sponsors should prioritize the provision of adequate instructional resources. Parents, administrators and communities near schools should be sensitized on the importance of resources in the instructional process. Teachers should be encouraged to produce resources locally by being provided with the necesary raw materials. Teachers should also be involved in the acquisition of instructional resources. The Ministry should also provide some of the resources of schools, subsidize their cost and encourage local producers to produce more affordable but quality instructional resources. It should also encourage Kiswahili teachers to be innovative and improvise existing resources to suit their needs. The necessary new text-books and other resources should be availed in the market and schools promptly whenever the Kiswahili syllabus is revised to ensure that schools acquire and use the current resources to prepare learners for the national examinations. The Ministry should regularly seek and act on information from teachers on the problems they face in teaching Kiswahili and using instructional resources. All public secondary schools should establish spacious Kiswahili resource rooms and libraries and equip them accordingly. The Ministry should also establish instructional resource centres near the teachers or provide mobile services.